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Kawah Gunung Papandayan dapat dicapai dengan kendaraan bermotor. Kira-kira 200 tahun yang lalu Gunung Papandayan belum memiliki tiga kawah yang yang sangat terkenal, hingga pada malam hari tanggal 11 Agustus 1772, puncaknya yang volumenya kira-kira 4 Km3 melayang melintasi kota Garut, yang pada waktu itu merupakan kota yang dikelilingi 14 gunung berapi, dan menelan korban 3.000 jiwa. Papandayan mempunyai 3 letusan yang bersejarah. Letusan terakhir terjadi pada tahun 1942. Gunung ini sekarang mempunyai jalan yang hampir dapat mencapai puncak.

Sebuah sungai kecil mengairi Tegal alun-alun di atas Gunung Papandayan yang memiliki banyak tumbuhan rawa gunung dan merupakan satu-satunya tempat di Jawa yang diketahui ditumbuhi oleh strawberi liar, sejenis saprah, atau tangtangan Potentilla polyphylla yang merupakan tumbuhan paling jarang ditemukan di pulau Jawa. Banyak terdapat babi hutan yang sering mendatangi kemah para pendaki yang sedang menyalakan api unggun atau lampu.

Papandayan adalah bagian dari barisan gunung berapi dengan tipe strato. Gunung ini memiliki warna dinding kawah kuning yang khas karena belerang. Kawah ini dikelilingi oleh hutan yang luas ke arah barat laut memanjang hingga lereng jurang yang curam. Jurang ini menjadi aliran sungai di kaki gunung.

Untuk menuju ke Gunung Papandayan wisatawan dapat menggunakan kendaraan umum berupa minibus dari kota Garut ke jurusan Cikajang dan turun di belokan di dekat Cisurupan yang menuju ke Gunung Papandayan.

Dari tempat parkir kita harus berjalan kaki mendaki selama setengah kam menuju ke kawah yang terdiri dari kolam lumpur yang mengeluarkan gelembung, lubang-lubang yang mengeluarkan uap panas dan kawasan belerang. Kita perlu ekstra hati-hati ketika mendekati kawah. Untuk mencapai puncak gunung, kita harus berjalan lagi sekitar dua jam melewati ladang edelweis. Untuk berkemah kita harus meminta ijin terlebih dahulu kepada petugas PHPA setempat.

Bagian tertinggi dari dasar kawah ada di sebelah tenggara dengan ketinggian 2000m dan berada 240 m dibawah pinggir kawah. Dasar kawah ini berisi kolam belerang yang terdiri dari air, fumaroles, solfataras, lumpur gunung api dan air panas. Semua kegiatan bagian-bagian kecil kawah gunung berapi ini menghasilkan suara yang berisik di dasar kawah.

Sebuah sungai yang mengalir melalui kompleks kawah pada awalnya berupa air jernih yang mengalir dari dalam hutan dan berubah menjadi air panas yang berisi asam belerang pada saat mengalir melalui kawah. Letupan lumpur gunung api yang berada di kawah biasa memiliki ketinggian 0,6 - 1,2m dan meletus dengan kekuatan yang besar, menyemburkan air keruh dan panas setiap 20-25 detik.

 

 

 

Mount Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano, located in Garut Regency, West Java, Indonesia. At the summit, there are four large craters, and it contains active fumarole fields. The 1772 eruption caused the northeast flank to collapse, producing a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people. It truncated the volcano into a broad shape with two peaks and a flat 1.1 km wide of Alun-Alun crater in the middle, making it look like a twin volcano. One of the peaks is called Papandayan and the other is Mount Puntang. Since 1772, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.

Mount Papandayan is a large composite volcano. It is constructed of alternating layers of lava and ash, and other fragmental volcanic rock debris formed by explosive eruptions over the past several hundred years. A large horseshoe-shape crater extended to the northeast resulting in an avalanche deposit consisted of intermixed volcanic debris and alternated rocks, with steep-sided crater walls. Numerous small vents within the crater, known as Kawah Mas, Kawah Baru, Kawah Nangklak, Kawah Manuk and many other with solfataras emitting smoke and hot fumes from its inner sides.

The Mount Papandayan area is a popular touristic area. Tourists can walk across the crater and view phenomena such as bubbling mud pools, steam vents and sulfur deposits. The bubbling yellow crater (Kawah Papandayan or "Papandayan Crater") is a popular sight. Above the crater is the elfin forest and several meadows with the Javanese edelweiss

A visit to Mt. Papandayan is one of the most spectacular outings to an active volcano you can make. Golden sulphur crystals, hissing steam, boiling mud and water, blue and black creeks, all set in a large crater with a commanding view over the Garut Plain make this outing an unforgettable experience.

Access to the mountain is easy with any vehicle. Public buses take you only to within 9 km of the crater, so you either have to walk the rest of the way or take an ojek (private motorbike with driver).

Though you can drive directly to the rim of the crater, keep in mind that your safety is not guaranteed—hot steam and boiling water and mud can scald you badly, and many of the sharp-edged rocks are rather loose. Do be careful.

There are two routes to Mt. Papandayan: one from the Garut area in the east and the other from the west via Pengalengan. Note that the two routes do not connect—not even a jeep can drive the 1 km across the crater.

from the east

The eastern approach from Garut is by far the easiest. Good roads take you right to the lower edge of the crater. Between Cipanas and Garut is the Tarogong roundabout, 42 km from the Cileunyi toll road exit. When you come from the north (Bandung or Cipanas), head toward Garut and Papandayan at the Tarogong roundabout. Half a kilometer past the roundabout, turn off to the right to bypass Garut and follow the Papandayan road sign. Continue on past the turnoffs to Kamojang (7km) and Darajat (9 km). Some 15 km from Tarogong the road connects with the main Garut-Cikajang road. After another 7 km, in Cisurupan, where the main road takes a sharp turn to the left, you go straight up the hill. From here it’s 9 km to the crater.

The road winds up the mountain, at times steeply, but is reasonably well surfaced and should not pose a problem for any car. At the car park, parking and admission fees are required.

Approaching Mt. Papandayan across the Garut Plain, you can see the horseshoe shaped crater with a gaping hole to the northeast. This open side resulted when, on 11 August 1772, a terrible eruption shook the mountain and the whole Garut area. What had once been a solid mountain flank exploded sideways across the Garut Plain.

papandayan-2Geologists estimate that several cubic kilometers, or several thousand million tons, of rock mass were blown out that night. If trucks were loaded with that mass and lined up bumper-to-bumper, they would encircle the earth three dozen times! Small wonder that more than 3,000 people lost their lives during that eruption.

From the car park it’s a 20-minute walk to the middle of the crater, and now you see why it is sometimes called the “Golden Crater’s its central part is a dome of yellow sulphur. Sulphur vapor hisses out of many small fissures in the dome to form columns visible from far away.

Shining yellow crystals of crystallized steam are everywhere, and in one place have collected to form a statue like figure more than 2 meters high. In earlier times local people channeled the steam through pipes to control this crystallization process to be used for commercial purposes. Be extremely careful not to step on one of these old brittle pipes, for it is likely to break and release scalding steam.

You may wish to take a few samples of sulphur with you as souvenirs, but it would be best to wrap them first sulphuric acid may form and burn holes in fabrics. Apart from sulphur deposits, boiling springs and streams flow in dark blue and gray colors. Be sure to avoid the soft patch- es of ground.

Through the open northwestern side of the crater a fantastic view stretches before you across the whole Garut Plain and as far as Mt. Ciremai near Cirebon, 80 km away The Mt. Papandayan crater is truly a visual feast.

from the west

The western route takes you to the upper crater rim through some memorable scenery. Be forewarned, how- ever, that long sections of the road are often in poor repair and only passable with a jeep. Public transportation is unreliable. You can drive up either the Cisangkuy Valley or the Citarum Valley to the village of Santosa and then on to Mt. Papandayan (see the relevant sections in “South of Bandung”). From Bandung you may need about four hours to reach the crater on this route.

 

Di Kawasan Gunung Papandayan ini masih terdapat babi hutan. Bila kita sedang berkemah babi hutan di malam hari sering datang, karena tertarik dengan cahaya/api unggun yang kita buat.

Untuk menuju ke Gn. Papandayan wisatawan dapat menggunakan kendaraan umum berupa minibus dari kota Garut ke jurusan Cikajang dan turun di belokan di dekat Cisurupan yang menuju ke Gunung Papandayan.

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