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Gunung Tambora pada tahun 1815 meletus dengan sangat dasyatnya hingga menewaskan 92.000 orang. Karena kedasyatannya hingga tercatat dalam sejarah dunia. Kehebatan letusannya tercatat sekitar 6 juta kali kekuatan bom atom. Gunung ini memiliki garis tengah sekitar 60 km pada ketinggian permukaan air laut. Pada tahun 1815 tinggi gunung ini diperkirakan sekitar 4.000 meter.

Letusan yang maha dasyat telah membentuk kawah dengan lebar sekitar 6 km, dan dengan kedalaman 1.110 meter. Menyebarkan sekitar 150 km3 debu, hingga mencapai kejauhan 1.300 km. Jawa tengah dan Kalimantan dalam jarak sekitar 900 km dari tempat letusan, berjatuhan debu setebal 1 cm. Bongkahan letusan melayang hingga mencapai ketinggian 44 km.

Letusan pada tahun 1815 ini telah menyebabkan tahun tanpa musim panas, suhu minimum setiap hari secara tidak wajar menjadi rendah di belahan bumi sebelah utara dari akhir musim semi hingga awal musim gugur. Kelaparan meluas karena kegagalan panen. Daerah gunung Tambora mengingatkan kita pada padang rumput afrika. Sepanjang pesisir pantai Kerobih berupa batu karang yang bentuknya sangat indah memiliki relief alami. Bagian selatan gunung Tambora adalah perbukitan dengan latar belakang pemandangan yang sangat indah.


Photo by Jenny Irma

 Binatang yang hidup di sekitar gunung Tambora adalah rusa, babi hutan, sapi liar, kerbau, monyet, landak, biawak, musang, kura-kura, berbagai jenis burung seperti kakaktua kepala putih, nuri merah, ayam hutan, elang, gagak, dll. Gunung ini berada di wilayah Bima, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Daerah ini dapat dijangkau dengan menggunakan pesawat udara dari Mataram, Lombok sekitar 1 jam menuju Bima. Dari Bima dapat ditempuh melalui darat menuju Dompu sekitar 60 km. Dari Dompu ke Kore berjarak 100 Km. Dari sini dengan speedboat menuju Labuhan Bili, dapat ditempuh sekitar 3 jam.

Dahulu kala ada seseorang pertapa sakti yang pertama kali datang ke gunung tersebut, kemudian bertapa dan tidak diketemukan lagi karena telah menghilang bersama roh dan jasadnya (moksa) di gunung tersebut. Pertapa sakti tersebut menghilang secara tiba-tiba dan sering menampakkan diri pada orang-orang tertentu yang mempunyai kemampuan dalam melihat roh halus. Konon orang sakti yang menghilang tersebut pernah menampakkan diri di sebuah pulau yang terletak di sebelah barat laut Pulau Sumbawa juga dapat terlihat dari puncak gunung. Gunung tempat pertapa sakti menghilang tersebut dinamakan gunung Tambora yang berasal dari kata ta dan mbora, dari bahasa Bima, kata "ta" yang berarti mengajak, dan kata "mbora" yang berarti menghilang, sehingga arti kata Tambora secara keseluruhan yaitu mengajak menghilang.


Photo by Jenny Irma

Doro Tam boro atau gunung tempat orang-orang menghilang ini masih dikelilingi hutan lebat. Menurut cerita masyarakat setempat sekitar 4.500 pendaki, pemburu, dan penjelajah telah menghilang dan tidak pernah ditemukan. Roh-roh para pendaki dan pemburu masih tinggal di dalam hutan, roh mereka hidup diantara bunga-bunga anggrek yang sangat indah.

 

Mount Tambora (or Tamboro) is an active stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. Sumbawa is flanked both to the north and south by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed by the active subduction zone beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 4,300 m (14,100 ft), making it formerly one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After a large magma chamber inside the mountain filled over the course of several decades, volcanic activity reached a historic climax in the super-colossal eruption of April 1815.

The 1815 eruption is rated 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the only such eruption since the Lake Taupo eruption in about 180 AD. With an estimated ejecta volume of 160 cubic kilometers, Tambora's 1815 outburst was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. The explosion was heard on Sumatra island (more than 2,000 km (1,200 mi) away). Heavy volcanic ash falls were observed as far away as Borneo, Sulawesi, Java and Maluku islands. Most deaths from the eruption were from starvation and disease, as the eruptive fallout ruined agricultural productivity in the local region. The death toll was at least 71,000 people (the most deadly eruption in recorded history), of whom 11,00012,000 were killed directly by the eruption; the often-cited figure of 92,000 people killed is believed to be overestimated.

The eruption created global climate anomalies that included the phenomenon known as "volcanic winter": 1816 became known as the "Year Without a Summer" because of the effect on North American and European weather. Agricultural crops failed and livestock died in much of the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in the worst famine of the 19th century.

During an excavation in 2004, a team of archaeologists discovered cultural remains buried by the 1815 eruption. They were kept intact beneath the 3 m (9.8 ft) deep pyroclastic deposits. At the site, dubbed the Pompeii of the East, the artifacts were preserved in the positions they had occupied in 1815.

Mount Tambora is located on Sumbawa Island, part of the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is a segment of the Sunda Arc, a string of volcanic islands that forms the southern chain of the Indonesian archipelago.[9] Tambora forms its own peninsula on Sumbawa, known as the Sanggar peninsula. At the north of the peninsula is the Flores Sea, and at the south is Saleh Bay, 86 kilometres (53 mi) long and 36 kilometres (22 mi) wide. At the mouth of Saleh Bay there is an islet called Moyo.

In 1812, Mount Tambora became highly active, with its eruptive peak in the catastrophic explosive event of April 1815. The magnitude was 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale, with a total tephra ejecta volume of 1.6 1011 cubic metres (160 cubic kilometers or 38 cubic miles). It was an explosive central vent eruption with pyroclastic flows and a caldera collapse, causing tsunamis and extensive land and property damage. It created a long-term effect on global climate. This activity ceased on 15 July 1815. Follow-up activity was recorded in August 1819 consisting of a small eruption (VEI = 2) with flames and rumbling aftershocks, and was considered to be part of the 1815 eruption. Around 1880 30 years, Tambora went into eruption again, but only inside the caldera. It created small lava flows and lava dome extrusions. This eruption (VEI = 2) created the Doro Api Toi parasitic cone inside the caldera

A scientific team led by a Swiss botanist, Heinrich Zollinger, arrived on Sumbawa in 1847. Zollinger's mission was to study the eruption scene and its effects on the local ecosystem. He was the first person to climb to the summit after the eruption. It was still covered by smoke. As Zollinger climbed up, his feet sank several times through a thin surface crust into a warm layer of powder-like sulfur. Some vegetation had re-established itself and a few trees were observed on the lower slope. A Casuarina forest was noted at 2,2002,550 m (7,2008,370 ft).[29] Several Imperata cylindrica grasslands were also found.

Rehabitation of the mountain began in 1907. A coffee plantation was started in the 1930s on the northwestern slope of the mountain, in the village of Pekat. A dense rain forest, dominated by the pioneering tree, Duabanga moluccana, had grown at an altitude of 1,0002,800 m (3,3009,200 ft).[30] It covers an area up to 80,000 hectares (800 km2). The rain forest was explored by a Dutch team, led by Koster and de Voogd in 1933. From their accounts, they started their journey in a "fairly barren, dry and hot country", and then they entered "a mighty jungle" with "huge, majestic forest giants". At 1,100 metres (3,600 ft), they entered a montane forest. Above 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), they found Dodonaea viscosa dominated by Casuarina trees. On the summit, they found sparse Anaphalis viscida and Wahlenbergia.

Binatang yang hidup di sekitar gunung Tambora adalah rusa, babi hutan, sapi liar, kerbau, monyet, landak, biawak, musang, kura-kura, berbagai jenis burung seperti kakaktua kepala putih, nuri merah, ayam hutan, elang, gagak, dll.
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