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Gunung Galunggung terletak di Tasikmalaya, merupakan gunung berapi yang masih aktif dengan jarak letusan sekitar 72 - 88 tahun.

Pada tahun 1822 letusan dasyat gunung Galung gung telah merengut korban jiwa sebanyak 4.000 orang. Letusan besar berikutnya terjadi pada tahun 1894 dengan korban jiwa yang lebih kecil.

Pada bulan Juni tahun 1982 Gn. Galunggung mengeluarkan 36 kali letusan besar dan 300 letusan kecil. Lahar dan abu yang di muntahkan merusak tanaman, ternak dan kolam ikan, namun tidak merengut korban jiwa manusia. Abu menyembur sampai sejauh 20 km ke angkasa, dan sampai bulan September terbentuk lapisan abu setebal 3 cm di area yang berjarak 15 km dari kawah, dengan jumlah rerntuhan sekitar 200 juta meter kubik.

Untuk menuju Kawah Gunung Galunggung dapat di tempuh dari Obyek wisata Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggung yang merupakan kawasan wisata air panas yang terletak di kaki gunung Galunggung.

Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggung terletak sekitar 20 km barat laut kota Tasikmalaya. Untuk mencapai tempat ini dengan menggunakan angkot dari Terminal bus Tasikmalaya menuju Bantar melalui Jalan Raya utama, dan dari Bantar naik ojek ke kawasan air panas sejauh 14 km melalui jalan yang bergelombang.

Dari Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggunung ini wisatawan dapat meneruskan perjalanan mengikuti jalan kecil kesebuah air terjun kecil dan terus ke kawah Gunung Galunggung sejauh 3 km.

Perjalanan mendaki ke kawah tidak terlalu sukar namun pemandangannya kurang menarik. Terdapat tangga yang terbuat dari semen untuk menuju kelokasi Kawah Gunung Galunggung.

Mount Galunggung is an active stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia, part of the Sunda Arc extending through Sumatra, Java and Bali, which has resulted from the subduction of the Indian oceanic plate and the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

Starting 8 October 1822 Galunggung began an explosive event that lasted over a month, reaching an estimated VEI of 5 and producing lahars that killed more than 4000 people. Pyroclastic flows extended almost 10km (6 miles) from the volcano. The last major eruption on Galunggung was in 1982, which had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4 and killed 68 people. This eruption also brought the dangers of volcanic ash to aviation to worldwide attention, after two Boeing 747 passenger jets flying downwind of the eruption suffered temporary engine failures and damage to exterior surfaces, both planes being forced to make emergency landings at Jakarta.

One, a British Airways aircraft carrying 240 passengers, accidentally entered the ash cloud during night time in June 1982 150 km downwind of the volcano. All four engines failed and the aircraft descended for 16 minutes, losing 7,500 metres of its 11,500-meter altitude, until the crew managed to restart the engines. The following month a Singapore Airlines aeroplane with 230 passengers aboard also inadvertently entered the cloud at night time, and three of its four engines stopped. The crew succeeded in restarting one of the engines after descending 2,400 metres. Both aircraft suffered serious damage to their engines and exterior surfaces

Mt. Galunggung is the volcano which dominates not only the skyline of the Tasikmalaya area but also much of the town’s history as well. This volcano has, in the last two centuries, erupted three times at remarkably similar intervals of 72 and 88 years. There was a catastrophic eruption in 1822 which claimed around 4000 victims and was thus one of the five most disastrous eruptions in Indonesia’s history.

One reason for this high death toll was probably the fact that the volcano had been dormant for many centuries before. After the 1822 eruption, a lava plug formed and gradually blocked the vent. The next big bang came in 1894, albeit with a much smaller loss of human life, and sometime after 1918 the lava plug formed anew. By and by, the crater fell silent, and by 1973 even all solfatara activity had totally ceased. But based on past experiences, experts predicted the next eruption would not be far off. And indeed it wasn’t.

On 5 April 1982, a big explosion ushered in a new series of eruptions of Mt. Galunggung, blanketing the whole surrounding area in ash. Enormous “lahars” (mudflows) rushing down from the mountain flanks forced the evacuation of more than 30,000 local residents. Moreover, the dust clouds of the eruption reached so high into the atmosphere that the pilots of two international jetliners who were not taking this too seriously found themselves suddenly with stalled engines and had to return to Jakarta. The volcano’s violent activities lasted for about two years before subsiding.

Now Mt. Galunggung is quiet again, but large areas are still barren of vegetation and more than five dozen hot springs are scattered around its slopes. Further evidence of the recent eruptions is the mining and quarrying of volcanic products.

Nowadays you can drive, even without a jeep, until fairly close to the crater, and the remaining walk up takes only about 45 minutes, affording a splendid view from the crater rim all across the Tasikmalaya Plain. Imbedded in the mountain flank is the crater proper, with steep, in places almost vertical walls. In the crater is a lake you can climb down to and where you can even swim.

There are two approaches to the crater; one is from near Singaparna (on the Garut-Tasikmalaya road about 60 km from Garut or about 6 km from Tasikmalaya), the other, more popular one is from Indihiang (on the Bandung-Tasikmalaya main road about 4 km before Tasikmalaya).

Both approaches meet at the eastern foot of the mountain, and from there a signposted track leads to some hot springs and the starting point for the remaining walk. As there is a confusing network of tracks whose condition continuously changes it may be best to ask for directions regularly.

 

Dari Tasikmalaya menuju Bantar melalui Jalan Raya utama, dan dari Bantar naik ojek ke kawasan Wisata air panas
  • Situ Lengkong
  • Karang Kamulyan
  • Rajapolah
  • Pantai Pangandaran
  • Taman Nasional Pangandaran
  • Green Canyon
  • Batu Hiu
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