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badak jawaBadak jawa atau javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) adalah binatang terbesar di Jawa. Beratnya bisa mencapai 1,5 ton, berkulit pucat. Badak Jawa pernah tersebar di hampir seluruh wilayah gunung di Jawa Barat, seperti gunung Gede-Pangrango, Gunung salak, Gn. Tangkuban Perahu dan gunun Ciremei.

Nama sebutan Badak Jawa agaknya kurang tepat karena distribusi alaminya, sejauh yang bisa dipastikan, pernah mencapai kawasan Sungai Brahmaputra di Bangladesh sampai Vietnam serta ke sebelah barat daya Cina, dan deskripsi badak pertama berasal dari spesimen yang ditemukan di Sumatera. Distribusi aslinya secara menyeluruh tidak akan pernah dapat diketahui, karena pada suatu waktu yang berbeda dan pada suatu tempat yang berbeda badak Jawa ini pernah dikacaukan dengan badak Sumatera Dicerorhinus sumatrensis dan badak India/bercula satu Rhinoceros unicornis. 

Dulu badak ini hanya dikenal dan bagian selatan Jawa Barat dan dari Gn. Slamet di Jawa Tengah, meskipun fosil yang masih ada ditemukan di sebelah utara Yogyakarta. Ketika Junghuhn mendaki Gn. Pangrango pada tahun 1839 (pendakian pertama yang tercatat dilakukan oleh orang Eropa) ia mengejutkan dua badak Jawa di dekat puncak gunung, seekor sedang berendam di suatu sungai kecil dan yang lain sedang merumput di pinggir sungai (Junghuhn 1854). Beberapa jalan setapak di beberapa gunung mengikuti bekas jejak badak, dan jalur-jalur di gunung-gunung yang ada dijawa mungkin merupakan sisa terakhir dari kehadiran binatang besar ini. 

Dua belas ekor badak Jawa terakhir yang terdapat di Sumatera telah ditembak oleh pemburu-pemburu Belanda antara tahun 1925-1930, dan setelah itu seekor lagi ditembak di Karangnunggal (Tasikmalaya) pada tahun 1934.

Sampai akhir abad ke-19 penduduk kota Bandung masih bisa menyaksikan adanya badak jawa, mereka menyebutnya badak priangan. Tidak mengherankan bila di Bandung ada daerah yang bernama Rancabadak. Namun pada tahun 1895 seorang pemburu Belanda menembak mati badak jawa tidak jauh dari kota Bandung, itulah badak jawa terakhir di kota Bandung.

Orang percaya bahwa sisa populasi badak Jawa sekarang hanya ada di Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon, tempat keberadaannya pertama dilaporkan pada tahun 1861. Meskipun demikian, pada tahun 1989, sepuluh ekor badak jawa ditemukan bertahan hidup di sepanjang sungai Dong Nai di bagian selatan Vietnam.

Badak Jawa adalah pemakan tunas dan rerumputan. Badak memakan daun-daun muda, tunas-tunas dan ranting-ranting yang tumbuh di permukaan tanah. Jika makanan ini tidak dapat dijangkau karena terlalu tinggi, maka badak akan berusaha mematahkan batangnya dengan cara menabrakkan dirinya pada batang tersebut, atau dengan cara menghancurkan batang dengan giginya.

Ada lebih dari 150 jenis tumbuhan yang diidentifikasi sebagai makanan badak, dan kemungkinan besar semua jenis tumbuhan tersebut yang dapat dicapai dan ukurannya sesuai akan dimakan. Badak memakan makanannya di berbagai tipe vegetasi, meskipun kebanyakan dilakukan di tempat-tempat yang tidak terlindung, misalnya, di antara pepohonan yang roboh atau di padang semak-belukar tanpa pepohonan. 

 

Badak jawa memiliki satu cula yang terletak di ujung hidungnya. Indra penciuman dan pendengarannya sangat tajam, tetapi badak jawa memiliki penglihatan yang kurang baik (rabun dekat). Badak Jawa melahirkan setiap 3-5 tahun sekali. Lama mengandung 16 bulan, umumnya melahirkan satu ekor anak saja dan dipelihara induknya hingga umur 2 tahun, setelah dewasa anak tersebut meninggalkan induknya. Usia badak jawa bisa mencapai hingga 50 tahun.

Keragaman makanan badak mungkin merupakan tanggapan terhadap kebutuhan untuk membatasi atau mencegah racun yang masuk, memaksimalkan kandungan mineral tertentu, serta menanggulangi kesulitan-kesulitan yang disebabkan oleh keragaman musim. Karena hampir semua catatan tanaman pangan berasal dari observasi tidak langsung, maka sangat relevan untuk memperhatikan bahwa kerusakan pada batang-batang pohon yang umum dilakukan oleh badak dapat juga disebabkan oleh banteng dan rusa.

Badak adalah salah satu mamalia purba yang masih hidup. Nenek moyang badak jawa Baluchitherium, telah hidup 50 juta tahun yang lalu, sejak jaman Erasia. Badak Jawa masih satu kerabat dengan kuda dan keledai, yakni hewan yang memiliki kuku ganjil.

Cula badak adalah evolusi dari rambut badak yang bersatu dan mengeras. Sejak jaman dahulu manusia memburu badak hanya untuk mendapatkan culanya. Konon cula badak dijadikan ramuan obat-obatan atau jadi barang kerajinan seni berharga.

Ada 5 jenis badak yang ada di bumi yakni:
1. Badak afrika putih
2. Badak afrika hitam
3. Badak india
4. Badak sumatra
5. Badak jawa

Badak Sumatera memiliki dua buah cula yang bisa mencapai panjang 80cm di bagian depan  dan 20 cm di bagian belakang. Tinggi badan 140 cm dan panjang mencapai 3 meter. Badak Sumatera dapat dijumpai di pulau Sumatera (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) atau sering juga disebut badak kerbau. Badak ini (Dicerprhinus harrissoni) juga dapat ditemukan di kawasan hutan di Kalimantan timur.

Badak india (Rhinoceros unicornis) memiliki satu cula yang panjangnya mencapai 60 cm. Tinggi badan 170 cm, dan panjang 3,8 meter. Badak ini hidup di anak benua bagian selatan.

Badak afrika putih (Cerathotherium simum) adalah badak paling besar dengan tinggi badan 1,8 meter dan panjangnya bisa mencapai 5 meter, memiliki dua buah cula. Cula depan bisa mencapai 137 cm panjangnya dan cula kedua panjangnya bisa mencapai 60 cm.

Badak afrika hitam atau Dicerros bicornis tingginya bisa mencapai 1,6 meter dan panjangnya 4 meter. Memiliki dua buah cula yang panjuangnya bisa mencapai 70cm di depan dan 50 cm di belakang.

Badak jawa (Rhinoceros sondaicus) adalah jenis badak yang paling kecil dengan tinggi badan 140 cm, dan panjangnya 3 meter. Memiliki satu cula dengan panjang mencapai 30 cm.

The main factor in the continued decline of the Javan Rhinoceros population has been poaching for horns, a problem that affects all rhino species. The horns have been a traded commodity in China for over 2,000 years where they are believed to have healing properties in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Historically, its hide was used to make armor for Chinese soldiers and some local tribes in Vietnam believed the hide can be used to make an antidote for snake venom. Because the rhinoceros's range encompasses many areas of poverty, it has been difficult to convince local people not to kill a seemingly useless animal which could be sold for a large sum of money. When the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora first went into effect in 1975, the Javan Rhinoceros was placed under complete Appendix 1 protection: all international trade in the Javan Rhinoceros and products derived from it is illegal.[28] Surveys of the rhinoceros horn black market have determined that Asian rhinoceros horn fetches a price as high as $30,000 per kilogram, three times the value of African rhinoceros horn. A painting from 1861 depicts the hunting of Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus

Loss of habitat because of agriculture has also contributed to its decline, though this is no longer as significant a factor because the rhinoceros only lives in two nationally protected parks. Deteriorating habitats have hindered the recovery of rhino populations that fell victim to poaching. Even with all the conservation efforts, the prospects for the Javan Rhinoceros's survival are grim. Because the populations are restricted to two small areas, they are very susceptible to disease and the problems of inbreeding. Conservation geneticists estimate that a population of 100 rhinos would be needed to preserve the genetic diversity of this conservation reliant species.

The Ujung Kulon peninsula was devastated by the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883. The Javan Rhinoceros recolonized the peninsula after the explosion, but humans never returned in large numbers, thus creating a haven. In 1931, as the Javan Rhinoceros was on the brink of extinction in Sumatra, the government of the Dutch Indies declared the rhino a legally protected species, which it has remained ever since. In 1967 when a census was first conducted of the rhinos in Ujung Kulon, only 25 animals were recorded. By 1980 that population had doubled, and has remained steady at about 50 ever since.

Although the rhinos in Ujung Kulon have no natural predators, they have to compete for scarce resources with wild cattle which may keep the rhino's numbers below the peninsula's carrying capacity. Ujung Kulon is managed by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry. Evidence of at least four baby rhinos was discovered in 2006, the most ever documented for the species. In March 2011, hidden-camera video was published showing adults and juveniles, indicating recent matings and breeding.

A Javan Rhinoceros has not been exhibited in zoos in a century. In the 19th century, at least four rhinos were exhibited in Adelaide, Calcutta and London. A total of at least 22 Javan Rhinos have been documented as having been kept in captivity, and it is possible that the number is greater as the species was sometimes confused with the Indian Rhinoceros. The Javan Rhinoceros never fared well in captivity: the oldest lived to be 20, about half the age the rhinos will reach in the wild. The last captive Javan Rhino died at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia in 1907 where the species was so little known that it had been exhibited as an Indian Rhinoceros. Because a lengthy and expensive program in the 1980s and 1990s to breed the Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) in zoos failed badly, attempts to preserve the Javan species in zoos are unlikely.

The Javan Rhinoceros (Sunda Rhinoceros to be more precise) or Lesser One horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sonda-icus) is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It belongs to the same genus as the Indian Rhinoceros, and has similar mosaicked skin which resembles armor, but at 3.13.2 m (1010.5 feet) in length and 1.41.7 m (4.65.8 ft) in height, it is smaller than the Indian Rhinoceros, and is closer in size to the Black Rhinoceros. Its horn is usually less than 25 cm (10 inches), smaller than those of the other rhino species.

Once the most widespread of Asian rhinoceroses, the Javan Rhinoceros ranged from the islands of Indonesia, throughout Southeast Asia, and into India and China. The species is now critically endangered, with only two known populations in the wild, and none in zoos. It is possibly the rarest large mammal on earth. A population of as few as 40 live in Ujung Kulon National Park on the island of Java in Indonesia and a small population, estimated in 2007 to be no more than eight, survives in Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam. The decline of the Javan Rhinoceros is attributed to poaching, primarily for their horns, which are highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, fetching as much as $30,000 per kilogram on the black market. Loss of habitat, especially as the result of wars, such as the Vietnam War, in Southeast Asia, has also contributed to the species's decline and hindered recovery.The remaining range is only within two nationally protected areas, but the rhinos are still at risk from poachers, disease and loss of genetic diversity leading to inbreeding depression. None are held in captivity.

The Javan Rhino can live approximately 3045 years in the wild. It historically inhabited lowland rain forest, wet grasslands and large floodplains. The Javan Rhino is mostly solitary, except for courtship and child-rearing, though groups may occasionally congregate near wallows and salt licks. Aside from humans, adults have no predators in their range. The Javan Rhino usually avoids humans, but will attack when it feels threatened. Scientists and conservationists rarely study the animals directly due to their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering with such an endangered species. Researchers rely on camera traps and fecal samples to gauge health and behavior. Consequently, the Javan Rhino is the least studied of all rhino species. On February 28, 2011, a video was released by WWF and Indonesia's National Park Authority which captured two rhinos with their calves. This motion triggered video proved that these animals are still breeding in the wild. There are no Javan Rhinos in captivity.

The first studies of the Javan Rhinoceros by naturalists from outside of its region took place in 1787 when two animals were shot in Java. The skulls were sent to the renowned Dutch naturalist Petrus Camper, who died in 1789 before he was able to publish his discovery that the rhinos of Java were a distinct species. Another Javan Rhinoceros was shot on the island of Sumatra by Alfred Duvaucel who sent the specimen to his stepfather Georges Cuvier, a famous French scientist. Cuvier recognized the animal as a distinct species in 1822, and in the same year it was identified by Anselme Gatan Desmarest as Rhinoceros sondaicus. It was the last species of rhinoceros to be identified. Desmarest initially identified the rhino as being from Sumatra, but later amended this to say his specimen was from Java.

The genus name Rhinoceros, which also includes the Indian Rhinoceros, is derived from Greek: rhino meaning nose, and ceros meaning horn; sondaicus is derived from sunda, the biogeographical region that comprises islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and surrounding smaller islands. The Javan Rhino is also known as the Lesser One-Horned Rhinoceros (in contrast with the Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros, another name for the Indian Rhino).

There are three distinct subspecies, of which only two are presumed to be extant:

Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus, the type subspecies, known as the Indonesian Javan Rhinoceros, once lived on Java and Sumatra. The population is now confined to as few as 40 animals in the wild, Ujung Kulon National Park on the western tip of the island of Java. One researcher has suggested that the Javan Rhino on Sumatra belonged to a distinct subspecies, R.s. floweri, but this is not widely accepted.  Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, known as the Vietnamese Javan Rhinoceros or Vietnamese Rhinoceros, once lived across Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and into Thailand and Malaysia.

Annamiticus is derived from the Annamite Mountain Range in Southeast Asia, part of this subspecies's range. A single population, estimated at fewer than 12 remaining rhinos, lives in an area of lowland forest in the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam. Genetic analysis suggests that the two extant subspecies last shared a common ancestor between 300,000 and 2 million years ago. Note that locals at Cat Tien National Park regard that the last individual of this population was shot by a poacher in late 2010; if this is correct, the subspecies is now extinct. Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis, known as the Indian Javan Rhinoceros, once ranged from Bengal to Burma, but is presumed to have gone extinct in the first decade of the 20th century. Inermis means unarmed, as the most distinctive characteristic of this sub-species is the small horns in males, and evident lack of horns in females. The original specimen of this species was a hornless female. The political situation in Burma has prevented assessment of the species in that country, but its survival is considered unlikely.

Even the most optimistic estimate suggests there are fewer than 100 Javan Rhinos in the wild. They are considered possibly the most endangered of all large mammals; although there are more Sumatran Rhinos, their range is not as protected as that of the Javan Rhinos, and some conservationists consider them to be at greater risk.[citation needed] The Javan Rhinoceros is only known to survive in two places, the Ujung Kulon National Park on the western tip of Java and the Cat Tien National Park about 150 km (90 miles) north of Ho Chi Minh City.

The animal was once widespread from Assam and Bengal (where their range would have overlapped with both the Sumatran and Indian Rhino) eastward to Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and southwards to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Java and possibly Borneo. The Javan Rhino primarily inhabits dense lowland rain forests, tall grass and reed beds that are plentiful with rivers, large floodplains, or wet areas with many mud wallows. Although it historically preferred low-lying areas, the subspecies in Vietnam has been pushed onto much higher ground (up to 2,000 m or 6,561 ft), probably because of human encroachment and poaching.

The range of the Javan Rhinoceros has been shrinking for at least 3,000 years. Starting around 1000 BC, the northern range of the rhinoceros extended into China, but began moving southward at roughly 0.5 km (0.3 mile) per year, as human settlements increased in the region. It likely became locally extinct in India in the first decade of the 20th century. The Javan Rhino was hunted to extinction on the Malaysian peninsula by 1932. By the end of the Vietnam War, the Vietnamese Rhinoceros was believed extinct across all of mainland Asia. Local hunters and woodcutters in Cambodia claim to have seen Javan Rhinos in the Cardamom Mountains, but surveys of the area have failed to find any evidence of them. A population may have existed on the island of Borneo as well, though these specimens could have been the Sumatran Rhinoceros, a small population of which still lives there.

 

- Neushoorns terbitan de ruiter bv.
- Ekologi Jawa dan Bali terbitan Pre nhallindo.
- The Indonesian Environment Al manac terbitan PT. Multi Kirana Pratama.
- Badak Jawa terbitan Grasindo.
- Mamalia terbitan Tira Pustaka.
- World Book Multimedia Encyclo pedia penerbit IBM
- Wikipedia.org
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