MERBABU.COM Pendakian Gunung Merapi Merbabu Jawa Tengah
Website in English Website in Nederlands Website Bahasa Indonesia Nature Lovers and Climbers List Photo gallery the Albums of Nature blog merbabu Mailling List Yahoo groups Merbabu Community groups in Facebook Guestbook of Nature Lovers
MENU KIRI
 

KONSERVASI ALAM

Konservasi Alam adalah suatu manajemen terhadap alam dan lingkungan secara bijaksana untuk melindungi tanaman dan binatang. Beberapa spesies binatang dan tumbuhan telah punah secara alamiah (misalnya dinosaurus). Namun dewasa ini kegiatan manusia dan pertumbuhan jumlah penduduk menyebabkan peningkatkan bahaya kerusakan alam, sehingga beberapa spesies jumlahnya berkurang secara drastis bahkan spesies tertentu telah punah sekarang. Untuk itulah Konservasi Alam sangat penting bagi manusia.   

 

Sepanjang sejarah alam telah menderita disebabkan oleh manusia dan kegiatannya. Dengan semakin meningkatnya penggunaan senjata yang semakin efisien seperti panah, senapan, pistol para pemburu dapat membunuh beberapa spesies binatang liar dengan sangat mudah. Manusia membuka hutan, mengeringkan rawa, membendung sungai untuk kegiatan perkebunan, pertanian, dan industri. Kegiatan-kegiatan ini secara serius telah merusak habitat tumbuhan dan binatang liar secara luas. Manusia juga telah menggangu proses alamiah habitat spesies yang tersisa. Beberapa habitat tertentu menjadi lebih sempit dan tidak bisa berhubungan dengan ekosistem yang lain. Polusi juga sangat berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan berbagai spesies tumbuhan dan binatang liar.  

Berbagai macam spesies tumbuhan dan binatang telah punah jauh sebelum manusia muncul di muka bumi. Namun spesies-spesies lainnya muncul menggantikan berbagai spesies yang punah dan keanekaragaman kehidupan tidak berkurang. Dewasa ini kegiatan manusia telah membinasakan berbagai spesies mahkluk hidup tanpa ada harapan untuk menggantikannya, sehingga keanekaragaman kehidupan menjadi berkurang. Beberapa ratus spesies binatang dan ribuan spesies tanaman liar menghadapi bahaya kepunahan, seperti harimau, orang utan, badak, gorilla, paus biru, singa asia, dll.  

PENTINGNYA KONSERVASI ALAM  

Jika manusia tidak melakukan konservasi alam maka berbagai spesies tumbuhan dan binatang liar yang terancam punah akan segera menjadi punah. Spesies-spesies lainyapun menjadi terancam kepunahan. Jika hal ini terjadi maka manusia akan mengalami kerugian yang sangat luar biasa karena kepunahan tersebut tidak dapat dimunculkan lagi. 

Kehidupan alam bebas sangat penting bagi manusia karena memiliki beberapa faktor manfaat diantaranya:
1. Faktor keindahan 
2. Manfaat ekonomi 
3. Manfaat ilmiah 
4. Manfaat bagi kelangsungan hidup  

Faktor Keindahan
Setiap jenis tumbuhan dan binatang adalah berbeda satu sama lainnya dan hal ini memberikan keindahan bagi alam dengan cara yang berbeda-beda. Sebagian besar manusia merasakan bahwa keindahan alam ini dapat memperkaya kehidupan mereka. Hal ini juga dapat menambah kenikmatan alam bagi orang yang melakukan camping, hiking, dan rekreasi alam lainnya. Seorang pendaki gunung akan merasa lebih senang bila melintasi kawasan gunung yang berhutan dan dihuni oleh binatang-binatang liar seperti gn. Gede, gn. Argopuro dan gn. Slamet dibandingkan gunung yang gundul tak berhutan seperti gn.Sumbing, gn.Sundoro, dan gn.Merbabu.  

Manfaat Ekonomi  
Berbagai spesies tumbuhan dan binatang liar menyediakan produk-produk yang sangat bernilai, seperti kayu, rotan, dan hasil-hasil tanaman lainnya, serat, daging, makanan, kulit dan bulu binatang. Manfaat ekonomi dari kehidupan alam liar memiliki nilai yang sangat penting bagi beberapa negara. Bagi masyarakat di negara-negara industri rekreasi melihat binatang di kebun binatang atau ke alam bebas bisa juga menjadi sumber pendapatan.  

Manfaat ilmu  
Mempelajari kehidupan tumbuhan dan satwa liar memberikan kepada kita suatu pengetahuan yang sangat berharga tentang variasi proses kehidupan. Beberapa penelitian tertentu dapat membantu para ilmuwan untuk memahami bagai mana fungsi tubuh manusia dan mengapa manusia bertingkah laku seperti itu. Para ilmuwan juga dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan pengobatan dan menemukan obat-obat baru dengan mempelajari kehidupan alam bebas. Dengan mengamati pengaruh-pengaruh polusi lingkungan terhadap kehidupan liar, para ilmuwan menjadi tahu bagaimana pengaruh polusi bagi manusia.  

Manfaat kehidupan  
Setiap spesies memiliki peran dalam membantu menjaga keseimbangan sistem kehidupan di bumi. Sistem-sistem ini harus berfungsi terus menerus jika kehidupan ingin tetap berlangsung. Sehingga hilangnya beberapa spesies dapat mengancam semua kehidupan, termasuk kehidupan manusia. Lebih dari 40 jenis pohon di hutan penyebaran bijinya sangat tergantung pada orangutan. Ular membantu mengendalikan populasi tikus. Burung madu, kupu-kupu dan kumbang membantu penyerbukan bunga.  

Pembagian Kerawanan satwa dan tumbuhan liar.  

Tumbuhan dan hewan yang menghadapi kepunahan dikelompokkan menjadi tiga macam:
1. Terancam Punah
2. Rawan Punah
3. Beresiko rendah

Spesies yang terancam menghadapi ancaman kepunahan yang sangat serius. Mereka membutuhkan perlindungan secara langsung dari manusia untuk dapat tetap bertahan hidup. Seperti orangutan, harimau, gajah, badak karena habitatnya semakin menyempit perlu dilindungi.  

Spesies yang rawan biasanya berlimpah di beberapa area tetapi mereka menghadapi bahaya yang serius. Bahaya ini bisa disebabkan oleh perubahan lingkungan yang tidak ramah atau perburuhan yang terus menerus. Seperti rusa dan babi hutan jumlahnya cukup banyak di beberapa wilayah namun bila diburu terus menerus dapat terancam punah.  

Spesies beresiko rendah dikenal juga dengan sebutan spesies yang jarang, biasanya hidup di wilayah yang dilindungi namun jumlahnya tidak berkurang. Misalnya pohon cemara gunung atau edelweis yang hanya tumbuh di puncak-puncak gunung.  

Metode Konservasi Alam  
Metode yang digunakan untuk melindungi Alam tergantung pada sumber-sumber ancaman terhadap spesies-spesies tersebut. Hal yang paling umum biasanya dengan menjamin tersedianya makanan, air, dan tempat tinggal yang memadai. Metode ini disebut manajemen habitat, mencakup juga konservasi tanah, pengelolaan hutan dan air yang baik.  

Beberapa spesies terancam karena manusia telah merusak habitatnya.  Sebagai contoh manusia telah mengeringkan rawa-rawa dan merubahnya menjadi pemukiman atau keperluan lainnya. Habitat rawa yang tersisa menjadi berkurang karena faktor-faktor kegiatan manusia, diantaranya mengalihkan aliran air yang seharusnya menuju rawa, penurunan tinggi air rawa, endapan lumpur, racun bahan kimia dan terisolasinya rawa yang satu dengan rawa yang lain.

Perladangan yang buruk juga merusak tanah, atau pelebaran kota dan industri dapat meratakan habitat berbagai spesies. Polusi dapat meracuni udara, air, tanaman dan binatang. Untuk menyelamatkan habitat satwa dan tumbuhan manusia harus mengontrol polusi dan mengatur wilayah yang digunakan bagi kehidupan satwa dan tumbuhan untuk tetap hidup.  

Binatang yang terancam karena adanya perburuan yang terlalu sering dapat dilindungi dengan undang-undang yang melarang atau mengatur penangkapannya. Hukum ini juga dapat digunakan untuk mengatur seberapa banyak spesies tertentu yang dapat diburu atau dibunuh. Hukum juga dapat melindungi tanaman-tanaman dari para pengumpul. Jika suatu habitat tertentu membutuhkan perlindungan maka wilayah tersebut dapat dijadikan taman nasional atau cagar alam. Dalam beberapa kasus binatang predator yang membunuh binatang yang terancam punah harus dikontrol sampai jumlahnya binatang yang terancam punah bertambah banyak.  

Dilain pihak suatu spesies bisa berkembang menjadi sangat banyak. Jika hal ini terjadi maka dapat mengancam kehidupan spesies itu sendiri atau spesies lainnya dengan memakan terlalu banyak persediaan makanan. Masalah ini bisa terjadi dengan rusa dan kuda nil di taman nasional. Untuk itu jumlahnya harus dikurangi dengan dibunuh atau dengan mengembalikan musuh alaminya yang membuat mereka menjadi jarang.  

Jika suatu spesies tidak dapat bertahan lama di lingkungan alaminya, maka binatang tersebut dapat dibesarkan di dalam penangkaran dan kemudian dilepaskan di hutan yang dilindungi. Begitu juga dengan satwa yang sukar berkembang biak dapat dikawinkan di dalam penangkaran.  

Suatu spesies yang terancam oleh penyakit dapat dibantu dengan mengatur kebersihan habitatnya. Tumbuhan langka dapat dirawat di kebun tanaman atau biji-bijinya dapat disimpan untuk ditanam di masa yang akan datang.  

Kunci keberhasilan dari konservasi alam tergantung pada pengetahuan akan ekologi dari suatu spesies dan kekuatan yang bekerja pada habitatnya. Dengan kata lain diperlukan suatu pemahaman tentang cara hidup suatu spesies dan hubungannya dengan segala hal yang ada di dalam lingkungannya.

Apa yang dapat masyarakat lakukan untuk mendukung Konvervasi Alam? Diantaranya tidak memelihara binatang-binatang yang dilindungi seperti burung-burung langka.

Karena membantu mencegah merajalelanya perdagangan ilegal satwa liar. Menyerahkan binatang piaraan yang dilindungi ke pusat-pusat Penyelamatan Satwa.

- World Book Multimedia Encyclo pedia penerbit IBM
- Ekologi Jawa dan Bali terbitan Pre nhallindo.
- The Indonesian Environment Al manac terbitan PT. Multi Kirana Pratama.

Conservation movement, to protect plants, animals and their habitats o Conservation biology, the science of the protection and management of biodiversity

Conservation genetics - "an interdisciplinary science that aims to apply genetic methods to the conservation and restoration of biodiversity."

Conservation (ethic), an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection, especially of the natural environment

Conservationist, a person who advocates for conservation of plants, animals and their habitats

Energy conservation, the reduction of non-renewable energy consumption

Habitat conservation, a land management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore, habitat areas for wild plants and animals

Water conservation, reducing the use of water to protect the environment

Wetland conservation, protecting wetlands to conserve their ecological processes

Wildlife management, multidisciplinary practices, including conservation of species and their habitats

Conservation authority (Canada)

Marine conservation, the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas

Soil conservation, management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered

Conservation-restoration, the profession devoted to the preservation of cultural resources o Art conservation, protecting works of art o Photograph conservation o Architectural conservation

Conservation laws, a set of laws in physics

Conservation of energy

 

Endangered species are living things threatened with extinction-that is, the dying off of all of their kind. Thousands of species of animals and plants are endangered, and the number increases each year. Some examples of endangered species are blue whales, giant pandas, orangutans, rhinoceroses, sea turtles, snow leopards, tigers, and whooping cranes. Among endangered plants are running buffalo clover, Santa Cruz cypress, snakeroot, and many species of cactuses.

Each species of plant and animal plays a part in the delicate balance of its ecosystem, its relation to other living things and the environment. Thus, the extinction of large numbers of species threatens the survival of other living things, including human beings. As more species have become endangered, ecosystems have become unstable or collapsed. Fortunately, people have increased their efforts to protect endangered species.

Most biologists consider a species endangered if they expect it would die off completely in less than 20 years if no special efforts were made to protect it, or if the rate of decline far exceeds the rate of increase. Until the last few centuries, species became rare or died out as a result of natural causes. These causes included changes in climate, catastrophic movements in the earth’s crust, and volcanic eruptions.

Today, species become endangered primarily because of human activities. Species mainly become endangered because of (1) loss of habitat, (2) wildlife trade, (3) overhunting, and (4) competition with domestic and nonnative animals.

Loss of habitat poses the greatest threat to the survival of wild species. Most animals and plants are specially adapted to live and reproduce in a specific environment or habitat and cannot survive when it is destroyed. The destruction of virgin forests by loggers and settlers and the conversion of natural grasslands into pasture for livestock have eliminated vast expanses of wildlife habitats. Marshlands have been drained for farmland and building projects. Coral reefs and many marine environments have become polluted, overfished, and even dynamited to obtain tropical fish and corals. Tropical rain forests contain the greatest variety of animal and plant life on earth, and they are being destroyed more rapidly than any other type of wild habitat.

Wildlife trade involves the capture of animals for pets, zoo specimens, and research subjects, and the killing of animals for their fur or other body parts. The capture of wild animals for commercial use has endangered many species. For example, the Spix’s macaw, a parrot of Brazil, is nearly extinct in the wild because so many have been captured for private bird collectors. Many primates, including the orangutan, have become endangered by the illegal killing of the mothers to capture their babies for zoos and pet dealers. Gorillas, chimpanzees, and other primates are killed for their meat, which is sold in African markets.

Other animals have been killed in such large numbers for their fur, hides, tusks, or horns that they are nearly extinct. Rhinoceroses, wild chinchillas, the Tibetan antelope, and snow leopards are among these. Although such animals are now protected by law in the countries where they live, they are still poached (hunted illegally). Poaching also has seriously reduced the number of African elephants.

Overhunting has brought numerous species to the brink of extinction. The Caribbean manatee, the Asiatic lion, the dugong, and many species of pheasants have become endangered because people have hunted them for food and trophies. Many species are killed by people who believe that the animals threaten their livelihoods. Livestock owners, for example, may shoot, trap, or poison wild animals that they consider a danger to their herds. Farmers and ranchers in North America have nearly eliminated the red wolf and many species of prairie dogs, while herders in Africa have almost wiped out the Simian Wolf. Some people in the fishing industry blame seals, which eat fish, for reductions in their catch. Fishing crews have killed so many Mediterranean monk seals that fewer than 200 survive.

Competition with domestic and nonnative animals is a major threat to numerous plants and animals. On many islands, native birds, mammals, and reptiles have become endangered after people introduced domestic animals. Livestock overgraze vegetation, eliminating habitat. Domestic cats prey on birds and small mammals. Rats escape from ships and infest islands, killing small birds and their eggs. In mainland areas, stocking of game fish threatens native fish, and nonnative plants and animals crowd out many native species.

Laws and conservation programs are helping to reduce endangerment worldwide. In the United States, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 protects endangered and threatened wildlife and plants from hunting, collecting, and other activities that harm them or their habitats. Since this law was enacted, the numbers of certain endangered animals, such as the alligator, bald eagle, and peregrine falcon, have increased so much that they have been removed from the endangered list or reclassified from endangered to threatened status.

Many wild species are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This treaty, drawn up in 1973, aims to control trade in wild animals and plants, their parts, and products derived from them. Over 150 countries have joined the treaty. CITES bans trade in rhinoceros horn, cheetah fur, sea turtle shells and meat, and certain whale products. Elephant ivory was banned in 1989, but a 1997 decision enabled the African nations of Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe to export a limited amount of stockpiled ivory to Japan. The ivory from these three nations was auctioned to Japanese buyers in 1999.

Various organizations publish lists of endangered species to improve public awareness. The IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) compiles lists that include thousands of animal and plant species that are threatened or endangered.

Protecting habitat is the key method of preserving endangered species. Many governments and organizations have set aside nature preserves. Some zoos and animal research centers conduct programs that breed endangered species in hopes of returning their offspring to the wild. The programs have greatly improved the outlook for such endangered species as the black-footed ferret and the California condor.

Banner Kanan
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

All is connected... no one thing can change by itself.

Birds are indicators of the environment. If they are in trouble, we know we'll soon be in trouble.

By polluting clear water with slime you will never find good drinking water.

Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land.

Environmental concern is now firmly embedded in public life: in education, medicine and law; in journalism, literature and art.

Environmental degradation, overpopulation, refugees, narcotics, terrorism, world crime movements, and organized crime are worldwide problems that don't stop at a nation's borders.

Every time I have some moment on a seashore, or in the mountains, or sometimes in a quiet forest, I think this is why the environment has to be preserved.

For me, going vegan was an ethical and environmental decision. I'm doing the right thing by the animals.

God has cared for these trees, saved them from drought, disease, avalanches, and a thousand tempests and floods. But he cannot save them from fools.

I firmly believe that we can have a healthy environment and a sustainable timber industry.

I see humanity now as one vast plant, needing for its highest fulfillment only love, the natural blessings of the great outdoors, and intelligent crossing and selection.

I think the cost of energy will come down when we make this transition to renewable energy.

If people destroy something replaceable made by mankind, they are called vandals; if they destroy something irreplaceable made by God, they are called developers.

If we bestow but a very little attention to the economy of the animal creation, we shall find manifest examples of premeditation, perseverance, resolution, and consumate artifice, in order to effect their purpose.

If we do not permit the earth to produce beauty and joy, it will in the end not produce food, either. If we gave up eating beef we would have roughly 20 to 30 times more land for food than we have now.

If you violate Nature's laws you are your own prosecuting attorney, judge, jury, and hangman.

In a few decades, the relationship between the environment, resources and conflict may seem almost as obvious as the connection we see today between human rights, democracy and peace.

In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.

In today's world, it is no longer unimaginable to think that business can operate - and even thrive - in an environmentally-friendly manner.

Industry is fortune's right hand, and frugality its left.

It is absolutely imperative that we protect, preserve and pass on this genetic heritage for man and every other living thing in as good a condition as we received it.

It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment.

It seems that every time mankind is given a lot of energy, we go out and wreck something with it.

Journey with me to a true commitment to our environment. Journey with me to the serenity of leaving to our children a planet in equilibrium.

Keep close to Nature's heart... and break clear away, once in awhile, and climb a mountain or spend a week in the woods, Wash your spirit clean.

Local innovation and initiative can help us better understand how to protect our environment.

Maintaining healthy forests is essential to those who make a living from the land and for those of us who use them for recreational purposes.

People in Slow Food understand that food is an environmental issue.

Population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every 25 years or increases in a geometrical ratio.

Thank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth.

The Endangered Species Act is the strongest and most effective tool we have to repair the environmental harm that is causing a species to decline.

The only way forward, if we are going to improve the quality of the environment, is to get everybody involved.

We don't have to sacrifice a strong economy for a healthy environment. We learned that economic growth and environmental protection can and should go hand in hand.

We must return to nature and nature's god. We won't have a society if we destroy the environment.

You will die but the carbon will not; its career does not end with you. It will return to the soil, and there a plant may take it up again in time, sending it once more on a cycle of plant and animal life.

Harmony with land is like harmony with a friend; you cannot cherish his right hand and chop off his left.

I can find God in nature, in animals, in birds and the environment.

I consider myself to have been the bridge between the shotgun and the binoculars in bird watching. Before I came along, the primary way to observe birds was to shoot them and stuff them.

I did not become a vegetarian for my health, I did it for the health of the chickens.

I don't think we're going to save anything if we go around talking about saving plants and animals only; we've got to translate that into what's in it for us.

 
Banner Bawah

HOME  -  ARTIKEL  JAWA BARAT  -  JAWA TENGAH  -  JAWA TIMUR  -  LUAR JAWA -  DAFTAR PUSTAKA  EMAIL MERBABUCOM  -  BUKU TAMU