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Air pollution Main article: Smog Haze over the North China Plain.

Haze often occurs when dust and smoke particles accumulate in relatively dry air. When weather conditions block the dispersal of smoke and other pollutants they concentrate and form a usually low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and may become a respiratory health threat. Industrial pollution can result in dense haze, which is known as smog.

Since 1991, haze has been a particularly acute problem in Southeast Asia, Indonesian forest fires burnt to clear land being the reason. In response the ASEAN countries agreed on a Regional Haze Action Plan (1997) and later signed the Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (2002) however the pollution is still a problem today. Under the agreement the ASEAN secretariat hosts a co-ordination and support unit.

In the United States, the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program was developed as a collaborative effort between the US EPA and the National Park Service in order to establish the chemical composition of haze in National Parks and establish air pollution control measures in order to restore the visibility to pre-industrial levels.[3] Additionally, the Clean Air Act requires that any current visibility problems be remedied, and future visibility problems be prevented, in 156 Class I Federal areas located throughout the United States. A full list of these areas is available on EPA's website.

Haze causes issues in the area of terrestrial photography, where the penetration of large amounts of dense atmosphere may be necessary to image distant subjects. This results in the visual effect of a loss of contrast in the subject, due to the effect of light scattering through the haze particles. For these reasons, sunrise and sunset colors appear subdued on hazy days, and stars may be obscured at night. In some cases, attenuation by haze is so great that, toward sunset, the sun disappears altogether before reaching the horizon . Haze can be defined as an aerial form of the Tyndall effect therefore unlike other atmospheric effects such as cloud and fog, haze is spectrally selective: shorter (blue) wavelengths are scattered more, and longer (red/infrared) wavelengths are scattered less. For this reason many super-telephoto lenses often incorporate yellow filters or coatings to enhance image contrast.

Infrared (IR) imaging may also be used to penetrate haze over long distances, with a combination of IR-pass optical filters (such as the Wratten 89B) and IR-sensitive detector.


Kabut adalah kumpulan tetes-tetes air yang sangat kecil yang melayang-layang di udara. Kabut mirip dengan awan,  kecuali bahwa awan tidak menyentuh permukaan bumi, sedangkan kabut menyentuh permukaan bumi.

Kabut terbentuk dari uap air yang berasal dari tanah yang lembab, tanaman-tanaman, sungai, danau, dan lautan. Uap air ini berkembang dan menjadi dingin ketika naik ke udara. Udara dapat menahan uap air hanya dalam jumlah tertentu pada suhu tertentu. Udara pada suhu 30º C dapat mengandung uap air sebangyak 30 gr uap air per m³, maka udara itu mengandung jumlah maksimum uap air yang dapat ditahannya. Volume  yang sama pada suhu 20º C udara hanya dapat menahan 17 gr uap air. Sebanyak itulah yang dapat ditahannya pada suhu tersebut. Udara yang mengandung uap air sebanyak yang dapat dikandungnya disebut udara jenuh. 

Ketika suhu udara turun dan jumlah uap air melewati jumlah maksimum uap air yang dapat ditahan udara, maka sebagian uap air tersebut mulai berubah menjadi embun. Kabut akan hilang ketika suhu udara meningkat dan kemampuan udara menahan uap air bertambah. Menurut istilah yang diakui secara internasional, kabut adalah embun yang mengganggu penglihatan hingga kurang dari 1 Km.

Ada 4 macam jenis kabut ialah;  
1. Kabut Advection 
2. Kabut Frontal 
3. Kabut Radisi 
4. Kabut Gunung 

Kabut Advection adalah kabut yang terbentuk dari aliran udara yang melalui suatu permukaan yang memiliki suhu yang berbeda. Salah satu contoh kabut ini adalah kabut Laut yang terjadi ketika udara yang basah dan hangat mengalir di atas suatu permukaan yang dingin. Kabut laut sering muncul di sepanjang pesisir pantai dan di tepi-tepi danau. 

Salah satu jenis yang lain dari Kabut Advection disebut Kabut Uap. Kabut ini terbentuk dari aliran udara dingin yang melalui air hangat. Uap air dari hasil penguapan permukaan air secara terus menerus, bertemu dengan udara dingin. Ketika udara mencapai titik jenuh, maka kelebihan uap air secara cepat mengembun menjadi kabut yang berasal dari penguapan permukaan air. Kabut Uap sering muncul pada saat udara dingin bertiup di atas danau yang luas dan bertiup diatas danau yang hangat.

Kabut Frontal terbentuk melalui suatu pertemuan antara dua masa udara yang berbeda temperaturnya. Kabut ini terbentuk ketika hujan turun dari masa udara yang hangat ke dalam masa udara yang dingin tempat uap air menguap. Dengan demikian akan menyebabkan uap air pada udara dingin melampau titik jenuh.

Kabut Radisi terbentuk pada malam yang tenang dan bersih, ketika tanah memancarkan kembali panas ke dalam udara. Satu lapis kabut terbentuk di seluruh permukaan tanah, dan secara bertahap bertambah menjadi tebal. Kabut Radiasi sering muncul di lembah-lembah yang dalam. 

Kabut Gunung terbentuk ketika uap air bergerak menuju ke atas melewati lereng-lereng gunung. Udara dingin bergerak ke atas lereng sampai tidak sanggup menahan uap air. Titik-titik kabut kemudian terbentuk di sepanjang  lereng gunung.



Mist is a phenomenon of small droplets suspended in air. It can occur as part of natural weather or volcanic activity, and is common in cold air above warmer water, in exhaled air in the cold, and in a steam room of a sauna. It can also be created artificially with aerosol canisters if the humidity conditions are right.

The only difference between mist and fog is visibility. This phenomenon is called fog if the visibility is one kilometre (1,100 yards) or less (in the UK for driving purposes the definition of fog is visibility less than 200 metres, for pilots the distance is 1 kilometre). Otherwise it is known as mist. Seen from a distance, mist is bluish, and haze is more brownish.[citation needed]

Religious connotations are associated with mist in some cultures; it is used as a metaphor in 2 Peter 2:17.

Mist makes a beam of light visible from the side via refraction and reflection on the suspended water droplets.

"Scotch mist" is a light steady drizzle, the name being typical of the Scottish penchant for understatement (and of Scottish weather).

Mist usually occurs near the shores, and is often associated with fog. Mist can be as high as mountain tops when extreme temperatures are low.

Freezing mist is similar to freezing fog, only the density is less and the visibility greater. When mist falls below 0 degrees Celsius in temperature it becomes known as freezing mist.

Fog is a collection of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. While fog is a type of a cloud, the term "fog" is typically distinguished from the more generic term "cloud" in that fog is low-lying, and the moisture in the fog is often generated locally (such as from a nearby body of water, like a lake or the ocean, or from nearby moist ground or marshes).

Fog is distinguished from mist only by its density, as expressed in the resulting decrease in visibility: Fog reduces visibility to less than 1 km (5/8 statute mile), whereas mist reduces visibility to no less than 1 km (5/8 statute mile). For aviation purposes in the UK, a visibility of less than 2 km but greater than 999 m is considered to be mist if the relative humidity is 95% or greater - below 95% haze is reported.

Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. The World Meteorological Organization manual of codes includes a classification of horizontal obscuration into categories of fog, ice fog, steam fog, mist, haze, smoke, volcanic ash, dust, sand and snow.[1] Sources for haze particles include farming (ploughing in dry weather), traffic, industry, and wildfires.

Seen from afar (e.g. approaching airplane) and depending upon the direction of view with respect to the sun, haze may appear brownish or bluish, while mist tends to be bluish-grey. Whereas haze often is thought of as a phenomenon of dry air, mist formation is a phenomenon of humid air. However, haze particles may act as condensation nuclei for the subsequent formation of mist droplets; such forms of haze are known as "wet haze."

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