NATURE WATER MOUNTAIN VOLCANO CAMP HIKE COMPUTER
Website in English Website in Nederlands Website Bahasa Indonesia Nature Lovers and Climbers List Photo gallery the Albums of Nature blog merbabu Mailling List Yahoo groups Merbabu Community groups in Facebook Guestbook of Nature Lovers
MENU KIRI

KEPERCAYAAN JAWA TERHADAP ALAM

Pada saat cuaca cerah, hanya sedikit tempat di Jawa yang gunungnya tidak dapat dilihat. Para penjelajah lautan dulu mengenali pulau Jawa dari gunung-gunungnya. Semua gunung yang ada berupa gunung berapi, meskipun beberapa diantaranya sudah tua. Pada masa penjelajahan dunia yang pertama Sir Frances Drake ketika melihat Gn.Slamet segera mengarahkan perahunya dan berlabuh di Cilacap.

Sebelum agama Hindu masuk ke pulau Jawa, puncak-puncak pegunungan yang tertutup hutan dianggap sebagi tempat kediaman para Dewa dan tempat bersemayam roh-roh orang mati. Bagi kebanyakan orang puncak gunung yang senantiasa tersapu angin dan terpencil tetap dianggap sebagai tempat angker. Lengkingan suara gas yang keluar dari gunung berapi sering dianggap sebagai suara roh-roh yang menderita karena penyiksaan yang luar biasa. 

Menarik sekali bahwa Gn.Semeru, pusat dari "kosmos-hindu" dipercaya sebagai sebuah gunung tinggi yang dikelilingi oleh empat atau delapan gunung lainnya yang yang memiliki puncak lebih rendah. Bentuk gunung Penanggungan, di sebelah selatan kota Surabaya, dahulu memiliki bentuk menyerupai deskripsi tersebut. Berlusin-lusin candi, kuil dan tempat-tempat suci lainnya dibangun disini, 81 diantaranya masih dapat dikenali.

Lebih dari seribu tahun yang lalu pengaruh agama Budha kemudian Hindu di Jawa saling bercampur dan memperkuat satu sama lain, membangun kepercayaan mula-mula tentang adanya Dewa-Dewa penguasa alam, roh-roh, hantu, setan, bidadari, dan para mahluk halus (lelembut). Di tempat yang subur mendukung terpenuhinya perlengkapan candi, tempat-tempat suci, kependetaan, dan upacara-upacara. 

Candi sering ditempatkan dilokasi yang menurut adat istiadat dianggap suci misalnya di gunung. Sejak itu gunung-gunung sering didaki oleh para pejiarah-pejiarah Hindu. Beberapa patung di tempatkan di puncak Gn.Salak, Gn.Malabar, tempat penyembahan di Gn.Argapura, sejumlah candi di bangun di Gn.Penanggungan.

Masyarakat Jawa menganggap laut sebagai tempat yang "Jahat", terutama laut selatan berada dibawah kekuasaan seorang Ratu-Roh yang sangat berkuasa Nyai Roro Kidul, yang juga sebagai perwujudan "Dewi Laut" dalam kepercayaan Hindu. Orang yang tenggelam di laut selatan dipercaya bahwa mereka dijadikan hamba dalam kerajaannya.

Hutan dipandang sebagi tempat yang gelap yang dihuni oleh makhluk halus, jembalang, jin, peri, gendruwo, wewe, dan tukang sihir, yang dapat menimbulkan sakit bagi yang sering menjelajah hutan. Segala gangguan terhadap makrokosmos dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan dan kesejahteraan umat manusia.

Hutan juga dipandang sebagai tempat kediaman manusia bijaksana yang menyepi dan hidup sebagai pertapa. Banyak kaum bangsawan pemberani datang meminta nasehat dan berlatih meditasi dari mereka. Gua-gua dalam hutan digunakan untuk meditasi dan berdoa. Orang yang berani memasuki hutan dianggap sebagai seorang pemberani atau sinting.

Rasa takut telah melindungi beberapa hutan dari gangguan manusia, diantaranya hutan-hutan di Gn.Halimun yang angker, Gn.Slamet yang angker, Gn.Penanggungan yang suci, dan Gn.Batukuha, dibandingkan hutan lainnya yang tidak dianggap angker. Hutan di Gn.Pancar di dekat Citeureup-Bogor dibiarkan tidak terganggu karena adanya pemakaman suci, sehingga sekarang masih dihuni 60 jenis burung dan sekelompok lutung Jawa. 

Perasaan ngeri dan takut berada di tengah hutan adalah sesuatu yang alami. Apalagi dengan berbagai kepercayaan tradisional, tetapi bisa juga disebabkan oleh rasa hormat terhadap suasana lingkungan yang liar, yang berkembang menjadi penghargaan dan perhatian terhadap lingkungan.

Banyak penduduk kota yang berpengatahuan, mengatakan bahwa mereka tidak percaya pada dunia roh dan upacara-upacara tradisional seperti pemberian sesajen untuk roh-roh penjaga ditempat suci/angker sudah mulai berkurang. Sangatlah keliru bila kita menganggap rendah nilai penting spiritual tradisional yang dipercaya sebagian masyarakat Jawa dan Bali.

Sesajen dalam bentuk kemenyan, bunga, makanan dapat ditemukan di gunung-gunung, terutama gunung yang memiliki arti mistik tertentu. Masyarakat sekitar gunung Merapi pun masih sering mengadakan upacara pemberian sesaji untuk Gn.Merapi. Upacara Yadnya Kasada oleh masyarakat tengger, yakni pemberian korban sesaji untuk Gn.Bromo.

Masyarakat Jawa yang beragama Islam maupun Kristenpun masih tersusupi berbagai kepercayaan kebatinan tradisional. Pengaruh Hindu juga masih dapat ditemukan dalam berbagai hal, seperti nasi gunungan (nasi tumpeng) yang melambangkan Gunung Mahameru.

Panembahan Senopati yang muslim pendiri kerajaan Mataram memperoleh kemenangan dalam perang di Prambanan melawan kerajaan Pajang, dengan memohon bantuan Nyai Roro Kidul dan Jin penguasa gunung Merapi yang meletus menewaskan pasukan Pajang.

Sejak jaman dahulu gunung begitu dihormati dan dianggap suci , sudah selayaknya kita pun para pendaki menghormati gunung, pohon, alam, angin, sungai, batu, hutan, binatang dan segala ekosistem yang ada di gunung. Begitu juga dengan pantangan-pantangan yang dipercaya masyarakat setempat harus kita hormati. Penghormatan kita kepada alam, setidaknya dengan tidak merusak atau mencemari agar tidak kuwalat.


The Javanese believe that the Earth is not only populated by human beings, but also by spirits (makhluk halus). Villages near Merapi believe that one of the palaces (in Javanese kraton) used by the rulers of the spirit kingdom lies inside Merapi, ruled by Empu Rama and Empu Permadi. This palace is said to be a spiritual counterpart to the Yogyakarta Sultanate, complete with roads, soldiers, princes, vehicles, and domesticated animals. Besides the rulers, the palace is said to also be populated by the spirits of ancestors who died as righteous people. The spirits of these ancestors are said to live in the palace as royal servants (abdi dalem), occasionally visiting their descendants in dreams to give prophecies or warnings

Reaching magnificently up to the sky on the border between Yogyakarta and Central Java provinces, the 2,968-meter volcano is believed, by the traditional Javanese communities that live in its vicinity, to be a sacred place. Some think that the volcano is the kingdom of spirits; while visiting Merapi, people are advised not to do things that could anger the spirits, such as relieving oneself wherever one might wish.

Others believe that the volcano is guarded by spirits, whose names vary from one region to another. On the northern slopes of Merapi, for example, Mbah Petruk is the guardian. In the south, the guardian spirit is Kyai Sapujagad, who was believed to have been sent by Panembahan Senopati to guard Merapi. Panembahan Senopati was the founder and first king of the Mataram Kingdom, which ruled Yogyakarta from the 16th century.

Other spirits are believed to live in or guard the volcano. These include Nyai Kendit and Dewi Gadung Melati. The rituals for worshiping Merapi or the spirits, therefore, also vary from one place to another. In Selo, Boyolali, Central Java, for example, villagers hold the Sega Gunung ritual to worship Mbah Petruk.

Others do so through ordinary tumpengan rituals, during which ceremonial dishes of tumpeng (cone-shaped yellow rice), are presented and served.

Mount Semeru

It said that in the one time , actually, Java Island floated on the sea and it’s not like today. Afterwards, Dewa (the god) give a decision to nail this island being fixed in a place.

The god move Mt Meru from India to the Java Island. The Mt Meru was heavy and high, so, Java Island fixed in a place like today Dewa Wisnu (a god of several god from Hindusm’s Mythology) changed himself to be “a turtle” and carrying of Mt Meru on his back. And, Dewa Brahma (a god) changed himself to be “a snake” and coiling safety to this mountain and turtle.

The gods put that mountain on the first island place where they found it. This area was in the west side of Java Island. But, due to the mountain was very heavy made the end of north side of this island removed on. Then, they take and removed to be in the east side. The same moment wass happened.

Finally, they decide to cut many side of this mountain and put in the north west of Java Island The rest of mountain cutting that done by the gods became a mountain, Mt Pawitra which it was known by Mt Penanggungan, and the main part of Mt Meru, lying place of Dewa Shiwa (a god) was known by Mt Semeru. When Sang Hyang Siwa (a god) visit to this island, he found so many “Jawawut Tree” and he gave this island named by “Java Island”.

The mythology is adopted from ancient book written in the 15th century Geographically, Java & Bali Island is same in the Hindusm symbols and development. According to the Hindusm’s mythology about Mt Meru, It’s assumpted this is a home for gods and being a connecting place between “earth” (human) and “khayangan” (heaven). If human are willing to hear about the “dewa sound”, he must meditated at the peak of Mt Meru.

Many Javanesse and Balinesse assumpted that Mt Semeru is the place for their gods or ghost. Finally, many people (Java & Bali) use this mountain as meditate place to get “the mysterious whispers” The Balinesse believe that Mt Mahameru (Semeru) is “father of Mt Agung” in Bali and very appreciated by them. The “Upacara Sesaji” (Presenting Ceremony for the gods) that presented by their gods is done by Balinesse each in 8 to 12 when somebody accept “the mysterious sound” from the gods who lives at Mt Mahameru. Beside of this ceremony, if it’s a urgently condition, The Balinesse visit in “Goa Widodaren” (Widodaren Cave) to get “Tirta Suci” (Holly Water).

When people want to climb until in this peak, there’s the reasons why they will. May be, somebody want to acquire of this “mysterious sound”. They wish get the “long age”, and luck. Before they climb to this peak, they provide his life supplieas as long as they meditate there, and also his mental. Many meditator is scare with mountain condition, visible or invisible.

Many people believe that mountain is as much ghost home that placed in around of mountain. That ghost is believed as “Roh Leluhur” (Dying Soul of Ancestors), live at all forest, hill, tree, lake in every route you through it This dying soul live here have much responsibility such as guiding of many place to be appreciated.

The climbers that overnight their trip at Ranu Kumbolo Lake, oftenly see the “Ranu Kumbolo” Lake. In the midnight, there’s a orange light in the center of lake and suddenly, this light is changed into a woman ghost. For a person has supranatural power, he will be happy with this, because he will spare of much time to speak with this ghost.

You may believe or not to this ghost existence, but The Javanesse believe that Bromo, Tengger and Semeru is the ghost’s home and dying soul of ancestors living here.

Rasa takut telah melindungi beberapa hutan dari gangguan manusia, diantaranya hutan-hutan di Gunung Halimun yang angker, Gunung Slamet yang Wingit, Gunung Penanggungan yang suci, dan Gn. Batukuha, dibandingkan hutan lainnya yang tidak dianggap angker.

Hutan di Gunung Pancar di dekat Citeureup Bogor dibiar kan tidak terganggu karena adanya pemakaman suci, sehingga sekarang masih dihuni 60 jenis burung dan sekelompok lutung Jawa. 

- Ekologi Jawa dan Bali terbitan Prenhallindo.
- Mitos Merapi dan Kearifan Ekologi. Ir. Wisnu Minsarwati, M. Hum. Kreasi Warna.
- Agama Hindu dan Budha. Terbitan Kanisius
- Babad Tanah Jawa
- Misteri, Legenda, dan Tempat tempat angker di Gunung. terbitan merbabu.com
- Misteri yang tersembunyi penerbit Lucky Publisher
- Into The Unknown terbitan Reader 's Digest
- Aliran Kebatinan dan Kepercayaan di Indonesia
- Enclopaedie van Nederlandsch Oost Indie, Leiden NV.
- Indonesië Volken en Stammen. Wolf Kielich. Amsterdam Boek.

 

Color of The Wind

You think I'm an ignorant savage
And you've been so many places I guess it must be so
But still I cannot see If the savage one is me
How can there be so much that you don't know?
You don't know ...

You think you own whatever land you land on
The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim
But I know every rock and tree and creature
Has a life, has a spirit, has a name

You think the only people who are people
Are the people who look and think like you
But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
You'll learn things, you never knew, you never knew

Have you ever heard the wolf cry to the blue corn moon
Or asked the grinning bobcat why he grinned?
Can you sing with all the voices of the mountains?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?

Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest
Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth
Come roll in all the riches all around you
And for once, never wonder what they're worth

The rainstorm and the river are my brothers
The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends

How high will the sycamore grow?
If you cut it down, then you'll never know
And you'll never hear the wolf cry to the blue corn moon
For whether we are white or copper skinned
We need to sing with all the voices of the mountains
We need to paint with all the colors of the wind

You can own the Earth and still
All you'll own is Earth until
You can paint with all the colors of the wind

Lyric lagu film Pocahontas, tentang cara pandang orang Indian dengan alam.

New Page 1
 
 
 
 
 

 
Toko Buku Online
 
 
 
New Page 1

HOME  -  ARTIKEL  JAWA BARAT  -  JAWA TENGAH  -  JAWA TIMUR  -  LUAR JAWA -  DAFTAR PUSTAKA  EMAIL MERBABUCOM  -  BUKU TAMU