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Makam Bung Karno ini terletak di Kelurahan Bendogerit, Kecamatan Sanan wetan Kota Blitar, Jawa Timur. Makam Bung Karno, didampingi pada kiri kanan oleh Makam Ayahanda "R. Soekeni Sosrodihardjo" dan Makam Ibunda "Ida Aju Njoman Rai".

Memasuki Makam ini dimulai dari sebuah gapura Agung yang menghadap ke selatan. Bangunan utama disebut dengan Cungkup Makam Bung Karno. Cungkup Makam Bung Karno berbentuk bangunan Joglo, yakni bentuk seni bangunan jawa yang sudah dikenal sejak dahulu.

Cungkup Makam Bung Karno diberi nama Astono Mulyo. Diatas Makam diletakkan sebuah batu pualam hitam bertuliskan : Disini dimakamkan Bung Karno Proklamator Kemerdekaan Dan Presiden Pertama Republik Indonesia. Penyambung Lidah Rakyat Indonesia.

Perpustakaan Bung Karno terletak disebelah selatan menyatu dengan kompleks Makam Bung karno yaitu di Jalan Kalasan no. 1 Blitar. Perpustakaan Proklamator Bung Karno dikelola oleh Perpustakaan Nasional RI melalui UPT Perpusta kaan Proklamator Bung Karno (PPBK) di Kota Blitar.

Disamping bangunan Perpustakaan, PPBK ini diisi dengan 2 karya seni, yang berupa Patung Bung Karno yang terletak di tengah gedung A lantai 1, serta dinding relief berisi perjalanan hidup Bung Karno yang membentang di pinggir kolam dari arah perpustakaan ke arah makam.

Peringatan Haul Bung Karno selain acara peringatan hari meninggalnya Bung Karno sejak 21 Juli 1970, juga menjadi wahana untuk menteladani perjuangan dan ajaran Bung Karno. Acara puncak perayaan itu berlangsung di Rumah Gebang Istana Gebang atau Ndalem Gebang merupakan rumah tempat tinggal orang tua Bung Karno.

Istana ini bertempat di jl. Sultan Agung no. 69, Biltar. Sebagaimana acara haul Bung Karno dari tahun ke tahun selain di Istana Gebang Acara tersebut juga diselenggarakan di kompleks Makam Bung Karno yang dilanjutkan acara tabur bunga pada pagi harinya.

 

Sukarno, born Kusno Sosrodihardjo (6 June 1901 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967.

Sukarno was first exposed to nationalist ideas while living under Tjokroaminoto. Later, while a student in Bandung, he immersed himself in Western, communist, and Islamic political philosophy, eventually developing his own political ideology of Indonesian-style socialist self-sufficiency. He begin styling his ideas as Marhaenism, named after Marhaen, an Indonesian peasant he met in southern Bandung area, who owned his little plot of land and worked on it himself, producing sufficient income to support his family. In university, Sukarno began organising study club for Indonesian students, the Algemeene Studieclub, in opposition to the established student clubs dominated by Dutch students.

On 4 July 1927, Sukarno with his friends from the Algemeene Studieclub established a pro-independence party, Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), upon which Sukarno was elected as the first leader. The party advocated independence for Indonesia, and opposed imperialism and capitalism because it opined that both systems worsened the life of Indonesian people. The party also advocated secularism and unity amongst the many different ethnicities in the Dutch East Indies, to establish a united Indonesia. Sukarno also hoped that Japan would commence a war against the western powers and that Java could then gain its independence with Japan's aid. Coming soon after the disintegration of Sarekat Islam in early 1920s and the crushing of Partai Komunis Indonesia after their failed rebellion of 1926, PNI begin to attract large number of followers, particularly among the new university-educated youths eager for larger freedoms and opportunities denied to them in the racist and constrictive political system of Dutch colonialism.[5] Sukarno with fellow defendents and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.

PNI activities came under the attention of the colonial government, and Sukarno's speeches and meetings was often infiltrated and disrupted by agents of the colonial secret police (Politieke Inlichtingen Dienst/PID). Eventually, Sukarno and other key PNI leaders was arrested on 29 December 1929 by Dutch colonial authorities in a series of raids throughout Java. Sukarno himself was arrested while on a visit to Yogyakarta. On his trial at the Bandung Landraad courthouse from August to December 1930, Sukarno made a series of long political speech attacking the injustices of colonialism and imperialism, titled Indonesia Menggoegat (Indonesia Accuses).

On December 1930, Sukarno was sentenced to four years in prison, which was served in Sukamiskin prison in Bandung. His impressive speech, however, received wide coverage by the press, and due to strong pressure from the liberal elements both in Netherlands and Dutch East Indies, Sukarno was released early on 31 December 1931. By this time, he had become a popular hero widely known throughout Indonesia.

However, during his imprisonment, PNI has been splintered by oppression of colonial authorities and internal dissension. The original PNI was disbanded by the Dutch, and its former members formed two different parties; the Partai Indonesia (Partindo) under Sukarno's associate Sartono who were promoting mass agitation, and the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia (PNI Baroe) under Mohammad Hatta and Soetan Sjahrir, two nationalists who recently returned from studies in Netherlands who were promoting long-term strategy of dispensing modern education to the uneducated Indonesian populace to develop an intellectual elite able to offer effective resistance to Dutch rule. After attempting to reconcile the two parties to establish one united nationalist front, Sukarno chose to become the head of Partindo on 28 July 1932. Partindo has maintained its alignment with Sukarno's own strategy of immediate mass agitation, and Sukarno disagreed with Hatta's long-term cadre-based struggle. Hatta himself believed Indonesian independence will not occur within his lifetime, while Sukarno believed Hatta's strategy to be ignorant of the fact that politics can only make real changes through formation and utilisation of force (machtsvorming en machtsaanwending).

During this period, to support himself and the party financially, Sukarno re-entered architecture, opening the bureau Soekarno & Rooseno. He also wrote articles for the party's newspaper, Fikiran Ra'jat. While being based in Bandung, Sukarno travelled extensively throughout Java to establish contacts with other nationalists. His activities attracted further attention by the Dutch PID. On mid-1933, Sukarno published a series of writings titled Mentjapai Indonesia Merdeka ("To Attain Independent Indonesia"). For this writing, he was arrested by Dutch police while visiting fellow nationalist Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin in Jakarta on 1 August 1933.

This time, to prevent providing Sukarno with platform to make political speeches, the hardline governor-general jonkheer Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge utilised his emergency powers to send Sukarno to internal exile without trial. In 1934, Sukarno was shipped, along with his family (including Inggit Garnasih), to the remote town of Ende, on the island of Flores. During his time in Flores, he utilised his limited freedom of movement to establish a children's theatre, among its members was future politician Frans Seda. Due to an outbreak of malaria in Flores, the Dutch authorities decided to move Sukarno and his family to Bencoolen (now Bengkulu) on western coast of Sumatera, on February 1938.

In Bengkulu, Sukarno became acquainted with Hassan Din, the local head of Muhammadiyah organisation, and he was allowed to teach Islamic religion at a local school owned by the Muhammadiyah. One of his students was 15-year old Fatmawati, daughter of Hassan Din. He became romantically involved with Fatmawati, which he justified by stating the inability of Inggit Garnasih to produce children during their almost 20-year marriage. Sukarno was still in Bengkulu exile when the Japanese invaded the archipelago in 1942.

 

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