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Gunung Gede-Pangrango adalah satu-satunya gunung yang paling sering di daki di Indonesia, kurang lebih 50.000 pendaki per tahun, meskipun peraturan dibuat seketat mungkin, bisa jadi karena lokasinya yang berdekatan dengan Jakarta dan Bandung.

Untuk mengembalikan habitatnya biasanya tiap bulan Agustus ditutup untuk pendaki juga antara bulan Desember hingga Maret. Untuk mengurangi kerusakan alam maka dibuatlah beberapa jalur pendakian, namun jalur yang populer adalah melalui pintu Cibodas.

Untuk mendaki Gunung Gede- Gn. Pangrango diberlakukan sistem booking, 3-30 hari sebelum pendakian harus booking dahulu. Jumlah pendaki dibatasi hanya 600 orang per malam, 300 melalui Cibodas, 100 melalui Selabintana, 200 melalui Gunung Putri.

JALUR CIBODAS

Cibodas (1.425 mdpl) dapat ditempuh dengan menggunakan kendaraan umum jurusan Jakarta - Bandung. Turun di pertigaan Cibodas, disambung dengan mobil angkutan kecil ke Kebun Raya Cibodas.Di sekitar Kebun Raya Cibodas terdapat tempat parkir yang luas, banyak terdapat pedagang makanan dan oleh-oleh di sepanjang jalan. Ada juga lokasi untuk berkemah di dekat kantor Taman Nasional. Lebatnya hutan tropis di lereng gunung Gede-Pangrango ini sudah terasa di Cibodas, namun suasana hutannya terpotong oleh padang golf yang sangat luas hingga ke arah puncak gunung pangrango.

Di Pintu masuk Cibodas pendaki wajib melapor dan menunjukkan surat - surat perijinan dan akan dilakukan peme riksaan terhadap barang-barang bawaan. Untuk barang yg dilarang seperti pisau, radio, sabun, odol, dll. akan diminta oleh petugas. Pada saat keluar Taman Nasional juga akan dilakukan pemeriksaan kembali serta wajib memperlihatkan sampah yang dibawa turun sisa-sisa pemakaian kita sendiri. Di setiap pintu taman ada tempat untuk membuang sampah.

Dari jalur Cibodas ini terdapat beberapa pos peristirahatan yang berupa bangunan beratap yang sangat bermanfaat untuk berteduh dan menghangatkan badan. Sebaiknya tidak mendirikan tenda di dalam pos karena mengganggu para pendaki lainnya yang ingin berteduh. Awal pendakian dimulai dengan menyusuri jalan setapak berbatu, melintasi kawasan hutan tropis yang lebat. Kicauan burung dan suara monyet menyambut para pendaki sejak dari pos penjagaan. Karena memang di Pos pendakian Cibodas banyak terdapat monyet.

Setelah berjalan sejauh 1,5 km melintasi kawasan hutan yang sangat asri, terdapat sebuah rawa yang disebut Telaga Biru pada ketinggian 1.500 mdpl. Telaga Biru warna airnya bisa berubah-ubah disebabkan oleh tanaman ganggang yang tumbuh didasar danau. Dengan melintasi jembatan kayu sepanjang jalur selanjutnya akan sampai di Pos Rawa Gayang Agung (1.600 mdpl). Jalur jembatan kayu ini sudah mulai rusak, banyak kayu-kayu yang lepas sehingga pendaki bila kurang berhati-hati bisa terperosok jatuh.

Setelah berjalan di atas jembatan kayu sepanjang kurang lebih 1 km, jalur kembali menapaki jalan berbatu hingga sampai di Pos Panyancangan Kuda. Pos ini berada diketinggian 1.628 mdpl, terdapat bangunan beratap yang dapat dipergunakan untuk berlindung dari hujan dan angin, namun pendaki-pendaki yang egois sering membuka tenda di dalam bangunan ini. Di lokasi ini terdapat persimpangan jalur (pertigaan). ke kanan ke arah air terjun Ciberem, sedangkan arah ke puncak ambil jalur lurus. Bila pendaki ingin mampir ke air terjun mungkin tas dan bawaan lainnya bisa ditinggal di pos ini, dan ada salah satu rekannya yang menunggu.

Berjalan sekitar 30 menit dengan lintasan berbatu yang sedikit menurun, dan di beberapa tempat digenangi air sehingga sepatu bisa basah, maka kita akan sampai di Air Terjun Ciberem yang berada di ketinggian 1.675 mdpl).

Air terjun Ciberem ini terdiri dari tiga buah yakni; curug Cidendeng, curug Cikundul, dan curug Ciwalen. Wisatawan umum bisa datang ke lokasi air terjun ini cukup dengan membayar tiket masuk di pos penjagaan. Untuk melanjutkan pendakian pendaki harus balik lagi ke Pos Panyancangan Kuda (pertigaan).

Dari pertigaan, jalur pendakian mulai menanjak dan berliku-liku melewati jalan setapak dari batuan yang terjal. Gemuruh air terjun yang berada jauh di bawah terdengar dengan jelas. Suara-suara satwa sering terdengar terutama di sore dan di pagi hari. Sejenak kita bisa beristirahat di Pos Batu Kukus (1.820 mdpl). Di tempat ini terdapat bangunan untuk duduk istirahat, dahulu ada atapnya yang disangga oleh sebuah tiang kayu di tengahnya.

Lintasan kembali menanjak, jalan setapak berbatu mulai berganti dengan jalan tanah yang lebih alami. selanjutnya jalur mulai landai dan bonus-bonus turunan akan mempercepat kita sampai di Pos Pondok Pemandangan (2.150 mdpl). Pada musim pendakian, karena ramainya pengunjung maka kita bisa beristirahat di pos ini sambil menunggu antrian melewati air panas.

Air panas berupa lereng curam yang sangat berbahaya, yang dialiri air panas dengan suhu yang mencapai 70°C, pendaki perlu ekstra hati-hati karena sempit dan licin. Sebaiknya jalan satu persatu dan menunggu bila ada pendaki yang melintas dari arah berlawanan. Karena bila dua orang pendaki bertemu maka pendaki di sisi jurang akan sulit mendapatkan pegangan bila terpeleset dan kesenggol akan fatal akibatnya, meskipun ada rantai besi pengaman namun kondisinya kurang aman untuk dijadikan pegangan.

Batuan di Air Panas terasa panas bila disentuh. Namun banyak juga pendaki yang berhenti untuk menghangatkan badan. Sebaiknya tidak berhenti di sini karena sangat menggangu pendaki lainnya, selain itu sebaiknya menggunakan sepatu, panasnya air sangat terasa bila kita hanya menggunakan sandal.

Mandi di sungai di Pos Kandang Batu (2.220 mdpl) ini yang berair hangat sangat menyegarkan badan, menghilangkan capek dan membantu melancarkan aliran darah yang beku kedinginan. Jangan gunakan sabun, odol, shampoo, karena banyak pendaki mengambil air minum di sungai ini. Membuka tenda di Pos ini sangat mengganggu perjalanan pendaki lainnya.

Meninggalkan Pos Kandang Batu kita akan melewati sungai yang kadang airnya deras sehingga hati-hati dengan sendal yang dipakai. Celana panjang mungkin perlu digulung, namun bila air sungai sedang tenang (tidak ada hujan di puncak) kita bisa melompat di atas batu-batu. Selanjutnya kita akan sampai di tanah lapang yang cukup untuk mendirikan beberapa tenda.

Mendekati Kandang Badak, kita akan mendengar suara deru air terjun yang cukup menarik di bawah jalur pendakian. Kita bisa memandang ke bawah menyaksikan air terjun tersebut, atau turun ke bawah untuk mandi bila air tidak terlalu dingin. Di sekitar air terjun ini lintasan terjal dan sempit sehingga harus menunggu antrian satu per satu untuk melewatinya. Setelah itu jalur mulai landai dan sedikit menurun hingga Pos Kandang Badak (2.395 mdpl).

Bagi pendaki sebaiknya mengisi persediaan airnya di pos Kandang Badak, karena perjalanan berikutnya akan susah memperoleh air. Setelah kandang Badak perjalanan menuju puncak sangat menanjak dan melelahkan disamping itu udara sangat dingin sekali. Disini terdapat persimpangan jalan, untuk menuju puncak Gn.Gede ambil arah ke kiri namun jangan salah jalan menuju ke kawah, dan untuk menuju puncak Gn.Pangrango ambil arah kanan. Persiapan fisik, peralatan dan perbekalan harus diperhitungkan, sebaiknya beristirahat di pos ini dan memperhitungkan baik buruknya cuaca.

Menuju puncak Pangrango waktu yang dibutuhkan sekitar 3 jam dengan jarak tempuh lebih kurang 3 km, dengan melintasi kawasan hutan lebat yang sangat terjal. Dari puncak gunung Pangrango pendaki tidak bisa menikmati pemandangan sekitar karena masih banyak pohonan. Sedikit turun ke arah barat terdapat areal terbuka seluas 5 ha yang dipenuhi dengan tanaman bunga edelweis. Tempat ini di sebut Alun Alun Mandalawangi.

Untuk menuju puncak gunung gede pendaki menyusuri punggungan gunung yang terjal. Terdapat sebuah tempat yang disebut Tanjakan Setan, tempat ini sangat terjal dan dilengkapi dengan tali baja untuk berpegangan. Dari atas tanjakan ini pendaki bisa memandang panorama puncak gunung Pangrango yang sangat indah.

Hempasan angin kencang sangat terasa di tempat ini. Pendakian di musim hujan tempat ini terasa sangat dingin karena hembusan angin kencang yang bercampur dengan air. Pendaki yang belum makan biasanya akan mudah sakit ketika tiba di tempat ini. Bahkan bisa terkena kram bila tidak menggunakan pakaian yang cukup tebal. Hingga puncak Gunung Gede angin kencang akan selalu menemani pendaki.

Puncak gunung gede memanjang, berbeda dengan puncak gunung pangrango yang runcing sempurna. Pendaki biasanya menikmati pemandangan Kawah Gunung Gede yang sangat luar biasa. Tercium aroma bau belerang yang kadang kala sangat menyengat hidung. Kawah gunung Gede terdiri dari Kawah Ratu dan Kawah Wadon.

Puncak gunung Gede sangat indah namun perlu hati-hati, kita dapat berdiri dilereng yang sangat curam, memandang ke kawah Gede yang mempesona. Dibawah lereng-lereng puncak ditumbuhi bunga-bunga edelweis yang mengundang minat untuk memetiknya, hal ini dilarang dan sangat berbahaya bagi kelestariannya.

Dari puncak Gede kita bisa kebawah menuju alun-alun SuryaKencana, dengan latar belakang gunung Gumuruh. Terdapat mata air yang jernih dan tempat yang sangat luas untuk mendirikan kemah.

Bila berkemah di alun-alun Surya Kencana di pagi hari sekitar jam 5 pagi pendaki akan dibangunkan oleh para pedagang yang menawarkan nasi uduk dan rokok, Gunung apa pasar !!?? Dari sini kita belok ke kiri (timur) bila ingin melewati jalur Gunung Putri, dan untuk melewati jalur Selabintana kita berbelok ke kanan (barat).

JALUR GUNUNG PUTRI

Untuk menuju Gunung Putri dari Jakarta naik bus jurusan Bandung / Cianjur turun di Pasar Cipanas. Dari belakang Pasar yang merangkap terminal ini kita naik mobil angkot ke Gunung Putri. Sebelum melakukan pendakian kita harus booking terlebih dahulu 3-30 hari sebelum hari pendakian di Kantor Pusat Taman Nasional yang terletak di Cibodas.

Di Pos Penjagaan Gunung Putri (1.450 mdpl), pendaki wajib melapor dan menunjukkan surat - surat perijinan dan akan dilakukan pemeriksaan terhadap barang-barang bawaan. Untuk barang yg dilarang seperti pisau, radio, sabun, odol, dll. akan diminta oleh petugas. Pada saat keluar Taman Nasional juga akan dilakukan pemeriksaan kembali serta wajib memperlihatkan sampah yang dibawa turun sisa-sisa pemakaian kita sendiri. Di setiap pintu taman ada tempat untuk membuang sampah

Pendakian awal berupa jalan setapak yang melintasi kebun penduduk, yang selanjutnya akan menyeberangi sungai kecil. Setelah melewati sungai jalur mulai menanjak dan kita akan menemukan pipa air minum yang disalurkan untuk keperluan penduduk sekitar.

Satu jam perjalanan dari pipa air pendaki akan sampai di Pos Tanah Merah yang berupa bangunan bekas kantor Taman Nasional yang sudah tidak terpakai di ketinggian 1.850 mdpl. Beberapa dinding kayu sudah hilang dan lantai kayunyapun sudah pada berlobang, namun atapnya masih bagus sehingga dapat digunakan untuk berteduh.

Jalur semakin menanjak dan melintasi akar-akar pepohonan, suasana hutan semakin lebat dan mencekam, setelah berjalan sekitar 1,5 jam akan sampai di Pos Legok Lenca diketinggian 2.150 mdpl.

Jalur berikutnya semakin curam dan licin terutama di musim penghujan, di beberapa tempat medan sempit sehingga pendaki harus ke pinggir bila berjumpa dengan pendaki dari arah berlawanan. Pos berikutnya adalah Buntut Lutung yang berada di ketinggian 2.300 mdpl. Tempat ini agak lega sehingga bisa beristirahat rame-rame setelah melintasi jalur sempit. Jarang sekali ada pendaki yang membuka tenda di pos-pos di sepanjang jalur gunung putri. Selain tempatnya sempit dan tidak ada sumber air, pendaki lebih suka bersusah payah sekuat tenaga untuk sampai di Alun-Alun Surya kencana dan berkemah di sana.

Sebelum sampai di lapangan terbuka Surya Kencana kita masih harus melewati dua pos lagi yakni Pos Lawang Seketeng (2.500 mdpl) dengan medan yang semakin terjal dan semakin menguras tenaga, serta Pos Simpang Maleber (2.625 mdpl).

Pos yang ada berupa bangunan untuk duduk yang dilengkapi dengan atap yang disangga satu tiang seperti payung. Seperti pos-pos yang lainnya tiang penyangga atap sudah roboh semua. Dari Pos Simpang Maleber lintasan sudah landai alun-alun Surya Kencana sudah nampak di depan mata. Untuk menuju Pusat Keramaian Alun-Alun ( Kilometer Nol ) kita harus berjalan ke arah kanan mengikuti aliran sungai kecil yang berada tepat di tengah-tengah lapangan.

Selanjutnya dari Km-0 kita ke kanan mendaki bukit terjal berbatu yang banyak ditumbuhi edelweis untuk menuju puncak Gn. Gede. Sedangkan untuk turun kembali lewat jalur Selabintana kita harus berjalan lurus.

JALUR SELABINTANA

Selabintana (960 mdpl) adalah kawasan wisata yang sangat menarik. Hotel, penginapan, tempat bermain, air terjun dan bumi perkemahan menjadikan kawasan ini ramai dikunjungi siapa saja. Kaum Remaja dari Bandung dan Jakarta sering mengadakan camping di lokasi ini. Kaum Muda Sukabumi menjadikannya sebagai tempat istimewa untuk berpacaran.

Di Selabintana terdapat air terjun Ciberem yang memiliki ketinggian hingga 70 meter. Percikan dan kabut yang tercipta oleh air terjun sudah terasa dari kejauhan ketika pengunjung hendak mendekatinya. Untuk menuju air terjun pengunjung harus melewati jalan berbatu yang panjang dan terjal. Lokasi yang sulit dijangkau ini tidak mengurangi niat orang untuk menuju ke sana. Banyak orang tua yang sengaja ingin memanfaatkan suasana alam dan jalur yang menantang ini untuk proses penyembuhan atau melatih badan.

Jalur pendakian Selabintana kurang diminati oleh para pendaki. Banyak hal yang menjadi alasan yakni:

1.membutuhkan waktu yang lebih lama baik dalam pendakian maupun dalam perjalanan di kendaraan umum,
2.akses kendaraan umum yang susah dan lebih jauh,
3.jalurnya lebih berat, berlumpur dan banyak pacet.

Setelah melakukan booking beberapa hari sebelumnya di Cibodas pendakian baru bisa dilakukan. Di Pos Pemeriksaan dilakukan pemeriksaan barang bawaan dan surat perijinan, kemudian pendaki bisa langsung "ngetrek" atau berkemah terlebih dahulu di Selabintana.

Dari Pos Pemeriksaan kita berjalan menyusuri tepi sungai yang aliran airnya jernih dan sangat dingin memasuki kawasan hutan lebat yang banyak dihuni satwa liar. Lintasan berupa jalan berbatu yang ditata rapi menyusuri punggungan gunung. Monyet-monyet bergelantungan di atas pohon, aneka burung berkicauan di atas dahan.

Setelah berjalan sekitar 1/2 jam kita akan berjumpa dengan menara pengamatan burung. Selanjutnya akan sampai di Pos Citingar (1.000mdpl). Di sepanjang jalur banyak terdapat sampah dedaunan. Di musim penghujan banyak pacet dan di musim kemaraupun masih ada pacet. Medan yang berupa tanah gembur dilapisi guguran dedaunan semakin menanjak dan licin.

Bila ingin beristirahat sebaiknya tidak duduk di atas pohon tumbang atau di tanah berhumus karena banyak pacet, cukup berdiri mengambil nafas panjang. Masih dalam kondisi jalur yang sama kita akan sampai di Pos Citingar Barat (1.175 mdpl). Sekitar 2-3 jam kita berjalan dikawasan hutan yang banyak pacetnya ini. Untuk itu gunakan sepatu gunung jangan pakai sendal, untuk menghindari puluhan pacet nempel di kaki.

Selanjutnya jalur masih berupa tanah gembur dilapisi dedaunan. 1 jam kemudian jalur agak landai sedikit turun dari punggungan gunung menghindari lintasan lama yang longsor (di atas lintasan baru). Di lokasi ini lintasan baru dilapisi dengan batu yang ditata rapi danPacet sudah jarang dijumpai. Kemudian kita akan sampai di Pos Cigeber (1.300 mdpl).

Bila lintasan sebelumnya langit tertutup oleh rimbunya pepohonan (canopy), maka lintasan berikutnya kita mulai bisa melihat langit karena pohon-pohon yang sangat tinggi sudah jarang. Tanah yang diinjak mulai agak keras. Kita akan melewati pinggiran jurang yang banyak ditumbuhi rumput-rumput yang agak tinggi. Selanjutnya tiba di Pos Cileutik (1.500 mdpl).

Sedikit turun di bawah Pos yang sudah roboh ini terdapat sungai yang aliran air nya kecil dan membentuk air terjun mini. Bila tidak terlalu dingin bisa mandi di sungai ini. Di lokasi ini beberapa pendaki bisa beristirahat bersama namun tidak cukup untuk mendirikan 2-3 tenda.

Setelah menyeberangi sungai kecil, medan kembali menanjak dan memasuki kawasan hutan yang lebat. Di beberapa tempat tanah yang diinjak agak lembek. sekitar 2 jam berjalan pendaki akan sampai di Pos yang banyak dikelilingi pohon-pohon yang memiliki bentuk yang aneh, sehingga bisa menimbulkan fantasi yang bermacam-macam.

Selanjutnya kita berjalan sekitar 2 jam maka kita akan sampai di Pos yang hanya bisa digunakan untuk duduk beristirahat sekitar 8 orang. Lintasan berikutnya makin terjal, di beberapa tempat kita bisa berpegangan pada akar-akar dan selanjutnya pendaki akan melewati jalur yang banyak di tumbuhi rumput-rumput yang sangat tinggi.

Sekitar satu jam kita akan sampai di Pos Pertigaan, di tempat ini terdapat persimpangan jalur, bila ke kanan menuju puncak gunung Gumuruh, bila ke kiri menuju alun-alun Surya Kencana. Sekitar lima menit dari lokasi Pos ini kita akan sampai di tempat yang terbuka, ke kanan kita bisa melihat ALun-alun Surya Kencana dan Puncak Gunung Gede.

Untuk menuju pusat Alun-alun (Kilometer Nol) kita berjalan ke kanan sekitar 15 menit. Di lapangan luas ini kita bisa beristirahat mendirikan tenda. Untuk melanjutkan perjalanan lewat jalur Cibodas kita harus mendaki puncak gunung Gede terlebih dahulu. Sedangkan untuk melewati jalur Gunung Putri kita berjalan lurus mengikuti pinggiran sungai.

Untuk menuju puncak Gunung Gede dari Km-0 kita masih harus mendaki batuan terjal yang banyak ditumbuhi Edelweis, dengan waktu tempuh sekitar 30 menit.

 

Mount Gede (2,958 m) and Pangrango (3,019 m) are twin volcanoes. The two summits are connected by a high saddle known as Kandang Badak (2,400 m). The mountain slopes are very steep and are cut into rapidly flowing stream, which carve deep valleys and long ridges.

Lower and upper montane and subalpine forests are within the park and have been well studied. To the north of Mount Gede is a field of Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica). The park contains a large number of species known to occur only within its boundaries, however, this may be a result of the disproportionate amount of research over many years.

Mount Gede Pangrango National Park is a national park in West Java, Indonesia. The park is centred on two volcanoes—Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango— and is 150 km˛ in area.

It evolved from already existing conservation areas, such as Cibodas Nature Reserve, Cimungkat Nature Reseve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Mount Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve, and has been the site of important biological and conservation research over the last century.[1] In 1977 UNESCO declared it part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves

Visitors usually enter the park by one of the four gates of the park: the Cibodas, Gunung Putri, and Selabintana gates, all give access to the peaks; the Situ Gunung gate gives entrance to a lake area set aside mainly for family-style recreation. Cibodas gate is the most popular entrance gate and is the site of the park's headquarters. From Jakarta, the area is two hours drive, usually via Cibodas Botanical Gardens.

Gunung Gede-Pangrango is inhabited by 251 of the 450 bird species found in Java. Among these are endangered species like the Javan Hawk-eagle and the Javan Scops Owl.

Among the endangered mammal species in the Park there are several primates such as the Silvery Gibbon, Javan Surili and Javan Lutung. Other mammals include Leopard, Leopard Cat, Indian Muntjac, Java Mouse-deer, Dhole, Malayan Porcupine, Sunda Stink Badger, and Yellow-throated Marten

Mount Gede or Gunung Gede (Big Mountain in Sundanese) is a stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia. The volcano contains two peaks with Mount Gede as one peak and Mount Pangrango for the other one. Three major cities, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, are located in the volcano complex at the east, south and northwest, respectively. Seven craters are located in the complex: Baru, Gumuruh (2,927 m), Lanang (2,800 m), Kawah Leutik, Ratu (2,800 m), Sela (2,709 m) and Wadon (2,600 m). Historical volcanic activity has been recorded since the 16th century

Gunung Gede and Pangrango are the first five parks that had distinction of launching Indonesias National Park Program. Located on Bogor, Cianjur and Sukabumi districts with cover area around 15,196 ha. It is the most accessible mountain to climb from Jakarta. By only 2 hours drive south of Jakarta and 5 " 6 hours trekking, you will find a tranquil rainforest, self guided trail and a spectacular view of West Java from the peak.

The national park consists of twin volcanoes: Gede 2958 m above sea level (asl) and Pangrango 3019 asl. The two summits are connected by a high saddle known as Kandang Badak, 2400 m asl. The mountain slopes are very steep and are cut info rapidly flowing stream, which carve deep valleys and long ridges.For those fortunate enough to stand on the summit of Mount Gede in clear conditions the view is spectacular. Some people, including, it is said, Raffles, have claimed to be able to see the Java Sea to the north and the Indian Ocean to the south. Occasionally climbers with very good eyesight or maybe imagination " have sighted Sumatra on the west! Mount Pangrango is less scenery, but more rich in flora than Mount Gede.

Gede National Park Pangrango (TNGP) is one of National Park in Indonesia. Located in the Cibodas, Puncak, Bogor. TNGP or Mount gede pangrango become one of the interesting tourist objects in Indonesia, especially for those who like extreme sports like mountain climbing. In TNGP there are many locations that can be found along the route, including:

1. Observation Post

2. Telaga Biru : Located at an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level or about 1.5 km from the entrance Cibodas or about 25 minutes away. This lake water may change color suddenly became blue, but the cause was a blue lake is not because there is a certain myth, but because the algae that live in the bottom of the lake, sometimes creating a bluish color in the water.

3. Panyangcangan

4. Cibeureum Waterfall : Located at an altitude of 1650 meters above sea level or about 2.7 km from the entrance Cibodas or about 1 hours drive.

5. Hot Water, 2100 above sea level

6. Kandang Batu

7. Kandang Badak Shelter

8. Alun-alun Surya Kencana : A gently sloping valley that there are many plants Edelweiss. Located at an altitude of 2750 masl, 11.6 km from the entrance Cibodas. Or about 6 hours drive. Surya Kencana square is very beautiful, many climbers who often spend the night and set up his tent here. If the morning, sunrise can be seen clearly from here.

9. Mount Gede Peak : Located at an altitude of 2958 meters above sea level, 9.7 km from the entrance Cibodas, or about 5 hours drive.

10. Mount Pangrango Peak: Located at an altitude of 3019 masl, 11 km from the entrance Cibodas, or about 7 hours drive. Edelweiss Valley was named Mandalawangi.

The FIRST CLIMBER

Who made the first recorded climbs to the peaks of Gede-Pangrango? The ubiquitous Raffles visited in 1811 and in his role as Lieutenant Governor of Java organised the construction of a trail on the southeastern slopes of Mt Gede: the remains of a large track can still be seen. Reinwardt, founder of the Bogor (Buitenzorg) Botanic Gardens, set foot on the Gede summit in April 1819. However he credits an American, geologist/physician Thomas Horsfield, has having already climbed to the mountain, but the date is uncetain. Horsfield collected natural history specimens and carried out research on Java between 1802-1819. The first recorded climb from Cibodas was made by Blume in 1824. He ascended via Cibeureum, the hot springs of Air Panas and Kandang Badak (Rhinoceros-field), the route used by most climbers today.

The "first climbing" of Mt Pangrango is very controversial. The honour is usually given to the German, Junghun, who reached the small crater meadow in April 1839. However, many years before, in August 1821, Kuhl and van Hasselt, two young biologist working for The Netherlands Commission for Natural Sciences, had written letters describing how they had followed rhinoceros tracks to the summit. Junghun seriously doubted that they had actually climbed all the way to the top. Controversy arose because they failed to mention the Imperial Primrose (see picture). At that time this spectacular primula grew only in the Pangrango crater. On Java the plant is recorded only from a few high mountains, and would have been of considerable interest.Teysmann, the then Director of the Gardens, supported the earlier claim. Unfortunately, Heinrich Kuhl and Johan van Hasselt could not be consulted, as both had died prematurely, in Buitenzorg - aged 24 and 26 respectively - of tropical diseases. The identify of the first people to stand on the peaks will never be known. They may have been Hindu worshipper belonging to the ancient Sunda kingdom of Pajajaran, or perhaps members of an even older society. Without a doubt, whoever they were they looked down from the summits a very long time ago: human remains found on Java date back over one and a half million years.

Surveying the grandeur and isolation of Gede and Pangrango, you will not be surprised to discover that these mountains are rich in history and legend. Such stories may well hold the key to our fascination with high places. At Cibeureum, there is a large rock in the Cikundul waterfall. By tradition this natural formation marks the spot where a holy man knelt and meditated so long and deep that he turned to stone. On the last day of the world, so the stories goes, he will revert to flesh and blood. In such stories natural and spiritual existence intertwine.

WILDLIFE

Birds excite particular interest not surprising when you consider more than half of Java's bird fauna, including all but a couple of the island's twenty or so "endemics", can be seen here. The park's most famous bird is the Javan Hawk Eagle. Less spectacular in appearance is the crater swift let, a bird which likes to live dangerously as it has only ever been recorded from three active Javan volcanoes. Even the humble chestnut-belled part-ridge, frequently seen running across the paths in family groups, is endemic to the western half of the island.

Alas, the Javan tiger and the rhino roam no more, but a surprising array of mammals can still be found. The most dramatic being the leopard. Leopards take an array of food including mousedeer, barking deer, wild pig and monkeys and will even have a go at Javan porcupines and pangolins. The other cat to occur is the leopard cat. It looks gentle enough but is actually more aggressive than its larger namesake. Keeping to the remote area of the peaks is the Asian wild dog. Listed by IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) also vulnerable it is perhaps the rarest of the park's larger predators.Out of the Gede Pangrango's four species of primate three are endemic to Indonesia. The rather scruffy ebony leaf monkey fortunately is still quite common. The Javan leaf monkey, by contrast, is a real aristocrat: gray on its back, with white underside and possessing a very slender looking body and limbs. As with the gibbon, this species is endemic to western half of Java. The park's most well known primate, the Javan Gibbon, has the dubious distinction of been the world's most endangered gibbon, of which around 100 live in the National Park.

Often the rich diversity of Gede Pangrango's smaller animals is overlooked. The park has a healthy population of small-clawed otters, considered by IUCN as "insufficiently know" but probably at risk. At least 19 species of frog have been recorded in the park ranging from a tiny brown species able to jump almost a meter, to several species of medium to large tree frog.

LEGENDS

Eyang Suryakancana
Eyang Suryakancana - Perhaps the most famous character in Sundanese mythology is Eyang Suryakancana. ("Eyang" means grandfather and is a title given to someone possessing spiritual power.) His father, known as Eyang Dalem Cikundul, was the first governor of Cianjur, appointed in 1677. Eyang Dalem Cikundul was very handsome and married a beautiful woman, who born him two children: a boy, Suryakancana, and a girl, Dewi Sukaesih. People do not tell detailed stories about Eyang Suryakancana as much as believe in his perpetual presence. His spirit still dwells in the Alun-alun (square/meadow of) Suryakancana - just below the summit of Mt Gede.

Prabu Siliwangi
In the forest bordering Alun-Alun Suryakancana is a site claimed to be ancient grave of prabu (King) Siliwangi – in legend many of the rulers of the West Javan Kingdom of Pajajaran are known by this name. The king of this particular story was at war: fighting either the Hindu kingdom of Majapahit to the east, or the newly-established Muslim Sultanate at Banten. After suffering defeat the king is said to have fled with his followers to Mt Gede. Climbers often report dreaming of a "kraton" or palace in the meadow and occasionally the thunder of spirithorses is heard. Confusion seems to exist, however, about whether the kraton and horses belong to Eyang Suryakancana or Prabu Siliwangi

Mbah Jalun
Sometimes fact merges into legend, as in the case of the famous leader, Mbah Jalun, a son of the King of Mataram. He led a long and oarduous campaign against the Dutch in the first half of the 19th century. After pursuing a rather nomadic lifestyles, he made his base in the Cianjur area. Stories tell of his trekking through the forest of Gede and Pangrango to avoid capture. On several tell of his trekking through caught and sentenced to death but escaped miraculously each time, seemingly by employing great mystic powers. Evantually he settled down on the southern slopes of mountains. Its is said that Mount Masigit, one of the smaller peaks in the park, derives its name from the belief that Mbah Jalun built a mosque there. According to local tradition the birth of a son prompted him to leave a permanent legacy for future generations, and so in 1817 he created a lake, Situ Gunung, on the southern slopes of the National Park – now a popular picnic spot. In old age Mbah Jalun was once more discovered by the authorities and again taken into captivity. Once more he escaped and made his way westwards, but a hard life had taken its toll and he died a few months later at the age of 71. He was buried at Kampung Baru, near Bogor, around 1840.

Caves and Stones

Several small, remote caves and named stones in the park are probably sites of ancient religious significance. Over the years these have become linked to the Suryakancana legend. Park staff receive special requests for permission to visit these sacred places. Pilgrims usually rest in Suryakancana Meadow, where they ceremonially wash in a small pool fed by a spring, close towhere the path from Gede summit descends into the meadow, before they commerce the journey to their chosen site.

Various reasons are given for such visits: occasionally people report that they have received a spiritual command or instruction, but usually visitors have a particular request that they wish to have fulfilled. Many requests are financial in nature, but some relate to very personal matters, suach the desire to marry or conceive a child. Several sites are considered to be good for kesehatan (health) and visitors frequently bathe in the freshwater springs for this reason.

ANIMAL WATCHING

Tropical forest are the world's most rich ecosystems, but on first entering a forest you may wonder where all the animals are. If you want to see forest animals, you must be prepared to spend time looking for them, particularly in the stillness of montane forest; a rich variety of diverse creatures is all around you. Bird-watchers, armed with both binoculars and determination, observe the behavior of manny different animals including monkeys, tree shrews and flying squirrels. Dawn and dusk often prove the best times to see active animals. Night-time "spotting" with a torch can yield birds such as nightjars and the rare Javan scops-owl, as well as nocturnal mammals including otters and stink badgers, not to forget a array of frogs; but for safety's sake, keep to the path when out at night.

MOUNT PANGRANGO Pangrango is a cool retreat at the foot of the volcanic mountain bearing the same name, and has a long restaurant and swimming pool. You may enjoy ample mountain views overlooking tropical forests and hills; this is located on the Salabintana Road, at 7 km from Sukabumi.

Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park is a combination of several former protected areas: Cibodas Nature Reserve, Cimungkat Nature Reserve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Gunung Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve. The park comprises an area of only 15,000 ha which makes it one of the smallest national parks in Indonesia. It is named after the two mountainous volcanoes in the park: Gunung Gede (2,958 m) and Gunung Pangrango (3,019 m). Gunung Gede is still active, its last eruption having taken place in 1957.

Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park comprises a variety of landscapes. Although small, the site has beautiful waterfalls, lakes and rivers, rugged volcanic landscapes, quiet alms, mountain swamp and tropical mountain forest. At higher elevations there are vast alpine grassy areas.

Adjacent to the park lies through Kebun Raya Cibodas, an annex of Indonesia's famous Kebun Raya Bogor. Note that during the weekends the place is veritably overrun by local residents from Jakarta.

Permits and guides are available from the PHPA office at the main entrance. For the permit you need a copy of your passport. Guides are not really necessary because Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park has an extensive web of foot-paths. If you want to trek through the area or climb one of the mountains you need a special permit, available at the PHPA offices in Cibodas, Selabintana or Gunung Putri. The park is best visited during the dry season: May-October. From January till March the park is closed.

Most of the park's flora is comparable to that of the Gunung Halimun National Park. Only around the craters of Gunung Gede and Pangrango is the flora very different. Due to poisonous volcanic gasses only plants adapted to this kind of environment, such as Myrsine avensis, Rhododendron javanicum, R. retusum, Selliguea feeiand Vaccinium varingiaefolium will grow here.

As many as 200 species of orchids can be found.

Notwithstanding the small size of the park a variety of animals can be seen. The park is a bird-watcher's paradise as more than 250 species can be spotted. MOUNT GEDE Mount Gede is a favourite place for hiking and camping. Almost every weekend, adventurers often come to this place in order to conquest the summit of mount Gede, at a height of 2,958 above sea level. From the summit, we can see the summit of Mount Pangrango which looks like a triangle. Both are with the Mount Gede Pangrango National Park system.

At the top of Mount Gede are some active craters (last exploded in 1957), and savannah meadows with eternal flowers (Edelweiss/anapahlis javanica) with an attractive view for climbers. We can also see the near cities such as Cipanas, Sukabumi, Bogor, and Cianjur from the summit of Mount Gede. Other places that can be visited are Mandalawangi summit (3,002 m), Sukaratu (2,836 m), and Gumuruh (2,928 m). Located in West Java, Gunung Halimun, Sundanese for "The Mountains of the Mist", contains some of Indonesia's largest remaining lowland and mountain forest. The area has been a nature reserve since the 1930's; therefore in 1992 the Government changed its status to that of a National Park. The Park has abundant untouched wildlife and stunning scenery. Each year visitors come to Gunung Halimun to explore mountainous terrain, canyons, rivers and waterfalls, natural hot springs, tropical forests and tea plantations in the middle of the park. With an area of approximately 40, 000 hectares, this park is a nirvana for the endemic (native) wildlife of West Java. More than 200 species of endemic, rare and common birds including the endangered Javan Hawk Eagle, as well as several species of primates, including Javan Gibbon, Javan Leaf-monkey, and Black Leaf-monkey reside within the park.

Halimun is also known for the richness of its plant species. In addition to the known hardwood and non-hardwood trees, lianas and medicinal plants, scientists believe that there are many species of orchids and other plants yet to be identified. It can thus be considered one of Indonesia's most exceptional National Parks.

Visitors can choose from many kinds of activities in and around the Park, from bird watching, hiking, camping and trekking. For those who seek serenity, it is a superb place for quiet walks and seeing sunrise or sunset. Local communities extend their hospitality to those visitors who would like to stay overnight in the Park. They have built and manage guesthouses that combine comfort and tradition.

MOUNT PANGRANGO Pangrango is a cool retreat at the foot of the volcanic mountain bearing the same name, and has a long restaurant and swimming pool. You may enjoy ample mountain views overlooking tropical forests and hills; this is located on the Salabintana Road, at 7 km from Sukabumi.

Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park is a combination of several former protected areas: Cibodas Nature Reserve, Cimungkat Nature Reserve, Situgunung Recreational Park and Gunung Gede Pangrango Nature Reserve. The park comprises an area of only 15,000 ha which makes it one of the smallest national parks in Indonesia. It is named after the two mountainous volcanoes in the park: Gunung Gede (2,958 m) and Gunung Pangrango (3,019 m). Gunung Gede is still active, its last eruption having taken place in 1957.

Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park comprises a variety of landscapes. Although small, the site has beautiful waterfalls, lakes and rivers, rugged volcanic landscapes, quiet alms, mountain swamp and tropical mountain forest. At higher elevations there are vast alpine grassy areas.

Adjacent to the park lies through Kebun Raya Cibodas, an annex of Indonesia's famous Kebun Raya Bogor. Note that during the weekends the place is veritably overrun by local residents from Jakarta.

Permits and guides are available from the PHPA office at the main entrance. For the permit you need a copy of your passport. Guides are not really necessary because Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park has an extensive web of foot-paths. If you want to trek through the area or climb one of the mountains you need a special permit, available at the PHPA offices in Cibodas, Selabintana or Gunung Putri. The park is best visited during the dry season: May-October. From January till March the park is closed.

Most of the park's flora is comparable to that of the Gunung Halimun National Park. Only around the craters of Gunung Gede and Pangrango is the flora very different. Due to poisonous volcanic gasses only plants adapted to this kind of environment, such as Myrsine avensis, Rhododendron javanicum, R. retusum, Selliguea feeiand Vaccinium varingiaefolium will grow here.

As many as 200 species of orchids can be found.

Notwithstanding the small size of the park a variety of animals can be seen. The park is a bird-watcher's paradise as more than 250 species can be spotted.

 

Tercatat ada 245 jenis burung di taman ini, ketika Junghuhn mendaki Gn.Gede-Pangrango pada tahun 1839, merupakan pendaki pertama yang dilakukan oleh orang Eropa, ia menemukan dua badak jawa di dekat puncak gunung (kandang badak) seekor sedang berendam di suatu sungai kecil dan yang lain sedang merumput di pinggir sungai. Sekitar 150 tahun yang lalu juga masih dihuni oleh banteng dan rusa jawa. Pada tahun 1929 masih ada Macan tutul Panthera pardus di Taman Nasional ini, dan tahun 1986 masih tersisa 10, tetapi sekarang sudah tidak ada lagi.

PERATURAN PENDAKIAN
1. Semua pengunjung wajib membayar tiket masuk taman dan asuransi. Para wisatawan dapat membelinya di ke empat pintu masuk. Ijin khusus diperlukan bagi pendaki gunung atau wisatawan yang dari Cibodas menuju Air terjun Cibeureum melanjutkan ke Air Panas. Wisatawan yang menuju Air terjun Cibeureum lewat Selabintana. Dari perkemahan Bobojong memasuki Taman Nasional lewat Gunung Putri.
2. Bagi para pendaki gunung harus minta ijin ke kantor pusat taman di Cibodas, 3-30 hari sebelum pendakian harus booking dahulu. Jumlah pendaki dibatasi hanya 600 orang per malam.
Jam buka kantor pengurusan ijin:
Senin - Kamis jam 07.30 - 14.30
Jumat jam 07.30 - 11.00
Pendaki harus menyerahkan photo copy KTP atau Surat ijin Orang Tua bagi yang belum memiliki KTP.
3. Penjaga akan memeriksa barang-barang bawaan dan perijinan sebelum memasuki taman.
4. Dilarang membawa binatang ke dalam taman.
5. Dilarang membawa senjata tajam termasuk pisau dan peralatan berburu.
6. Dilarang membawa perlengkapan radio dan bunyi-bunyian ke dalam taman, ijin khusus diperlukan bagi pengguna "walkie-talkie".
7. Dilarang membuat api unggun yang beresiko tinggi penyebab kebakaran hutan.
8. Dilarang mengganggu, memindahkan, atau merusak barang-barang milik taman. Termasuk mencorat-coret batu atau pohon.
9. Dilarang memetik bunga atau mencabut tanaman.
10. Mendakilah mengikuti jalur utama. Memotong jalur dapat merusak taman dan juga sangat berbahaya.
11. Jangan tinggalkan sampah, sangat sulit dan lama untuk membersihkan sampah dan botol-botol di gunung. Bawa kembali semua sampah ke luar taman.
12. Jangan mecemari atau mengotori sungai, pada saat mandi jangan gunakan sabun atau bahan pencemar lainnya.
13. Melapor kembali ke penjaga taman ketika meninggalkan taman dan menyerahkan surat ijin masuk.
14. Dilarang membawa minumam beralkohol ke dalam taman.

KEBUTUHAN MINIMAL
Bagi para pendaki kebutuhan utama yang harus dipenuhi adalah:
1.Perlengkapan minim pendakian: pakaian hangat, sleeping bag bila ingin menginap di gunung, jas hujan atau pakaian tahan air, perlengkapan obat-obatan.
2. Bawalah bekal makanan dan minuman yang cukup (non- alkohol).
3. Dilarang mendaki sendirian, sedikitnya harus tiga orang dalam suatu kelompok dan sebisa mungkin dibimbing oleh orang yang sudah hafal betul dengan jalurnya.

CIBODAS - BOTANICAL GARDEN

Kebun Raya Cibodas (the Cibodas Botanical Garden) is a 125-hectares botanical garden, located approximately 1,300-1,425 meters up on the slopes of Mount Gede, 23 kilometers to the northwest of Cianjur in the Cibodas subdistrict of West Java, Indonesia or around 100 kilometers from Jakarta. It was founded in 1862 by the Dutch botanist Johannes Elias Teysjmann as an extension of the Bogor Botanical Gardens, and is the first location that Cinchona trees were grown in Indonesia for quinine production, but a few years later some of the plants had to be transferred to another more suitable place. At last introducing of exotic plants to Indonesia continued such as Eucalyptus from Australia, Conifer from Europe and others, so we may see the world in Cibodas Botanical Garden.

The gardens have a collection of almost 6,000 specimens, representing over 1,200 species, and a glasshouse collection of over 4,000 specimens,including 350 species of cacti and succulents and 360 species of orchids.

 

JALUR CIBODAS
Naik bus jur Jakarta-Bandung lewat puncak, turun di pertigaan Cibodas. Mobil angkot ke Kebun Raya Cibodas.

JALUR GUNUNG PUTRI
Naik bus jur Jakarta-Bandung lewat puncak, turun di pasar Cipanas. Mobil Angkot ke gunung Putri.

JALUR SELABINTANA
Dari Sukabumi naik mobil angkot ke Selabintana. Jalan kaki/carter angkot ke Pondok Halimun.

  • Kebun Raya Cibodas
  • Air Terjun Ciberem
  • Curug Sawer/Situgunung
  • Puncak Pass
  • Gunung Gumuruh
  • Alun-alun Suryakencana

Kadangkala pendaki yang berada dikawasan alun-alun Suryakencana, akan mendengar suara kaki kuda yang berlarian, tapi kuda tersebut tidak terlihat wujudnya. Konon, kejadian ini pertanda Pangeran Suryakencana datang ke alun-alun dengan dikawal oleh para prajurit. Selain itu para pendaki kadang kala akan melihat suatu bangunan istana.

Alun-alun Surya Kencana berupa sebuah lapangan datar dan luas pada ketinggian 2.750m dpl yang berada disebelah timur puncak Gede, merupakan padang rumput dan padang edelweiss. Suryakencana adalah nama seorang putra Pangeran Aria Wiratanudatar (pendiri kota Cianjur) yang beristrikan seorang putri jin. Pangeran Suryakencana memiliki dua putra yaitu: Prabu Sakti dan Prabu Siliwangi.

Kawasan Gunung Gede merupakan tempat bersemayam Pangeran Suryakencana. Beliau bersama rakyat jin menjadikan alun2 sebagai lumbung padi yang disebut Leuit Salawe, Salawe Jajar, dan kebun kelapa salawe tangkal, salawe manggar. Petilasan singgasana Pangeran Suryakencana berupa sebuah batu besar berbentuk pelana. Hingga kini, petilasan tersebut masih berada di tengah alun-alun, dan disebut Batu Dongdang yang dijaga oleh Embah Layang Gading.

Sumber air yang berada ditengah alun-alun, dahulu merupakan jamban untuk keperluan minum dan mandi. Di dalam hutan yang mengitari Alun-alun Surya Kencana ini ada sebuah situs kuburan kuno tempat bersemayam Prabu Siliwangi. Pada masa pemerintahan Prabu Siliwangi yang menguasai Jawa Barat, terjadi peperangan melawan Majapahit. Selain itu Prabu Siliwangi juga harus berperang melawan Kerajaan Kesultanan Banten. Setelah menderita kekalahan yang sangat hebat Prabu Siliwangi melarikan diri bersama para pengikutnya ke Gunung Gede.

Sekitar gunung Gede banyak terdapat petilasan peninggalan bersejarah yang dianggap sakral oleh sebagian peziarah, seperti petilasan Pangeran Suryakencana, putri jin dan Prabu Siliwangi. Kawah Gunung Gede yang terdiri dari, Kawah Ratu, Kawah Lanang, dan Kawah Wadon, dijaga oleh Embah Kalijaga.

Embah Serah adalah penjaga Lawang Seketeng (pintu jaga) yang terdiri atas dua buah batu besar. Pintu jaga tersebut berada di Batu Kukus, sebelum lokasi air terjun panas yang menuju kearah puncak.

Eyang Jayakusumah adalah penjaga Gunung Sela yang berada disebelah utara puncak Gunung Gede. Sedangkan Eyang Jayarahmatan dan Embah Kadok menjaga dua buah batu dihalaman parkir kendaraan wisatawan kawasan cibodas. Batu tersebut pernah dihancurkan, namun bor mesin tidak mampu menghancurkannya. Dalam kawasan Kebun Raya Cibodas, terdapat petilasan/ makam Eyang Haji Mintarasa.

Pangeran Suryakencana menyimpan hartanya dalam sebuah gua lawa/walet yang berada di sekitar air terjun Cibeureum. Gua tersebut dijaga oleh Embah Dalem Cikundul. Tepat berada di tengah-tengah air terjun Cibeureum ini terdapat sebuah batu besar yang konon adalah perwujudan seorang pertapa sakti yang karena bertapa sangat lama dan tekun sehingga berubah menjadi batu. Pada hari kiamat nanti barulah ia akan kembali berubah menjadi manusia.

 

BALAI
TAMAN
NASIONAL GUNUNG GEDE PANGRANGO
Jl. Raya Cibodas, Cipanas, Cianjur, Jawa Barat,
Indonesia 43253
Tel/Fax:
+62-263-512776 [office] | Tel/Fax: +62-263-519415
Web :
http://gedepangrango.org/
[office] Email: info@gedepangrango.org [booking] Email booking@gedepangrango.org

 

 

 

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The Gede-Pangrango National Park

The park, covering 15,196 ha, evolved from several already existing conservation areas: Cibodas Nature Reseve (240 ha), gazetted in 1889, was the oldest reserve in Indonesia and in 1925 was extended to 1,040 ha; Cimungkat Nature Reserve (56 ha) gazetted in 1919; situgunung Recreational Park (120 ha) gazetted in 1975; and Mount Gede Pangrango nature Reserve (14,000 ha) gazetted in 1978.

The park is situated between longitudes 106°51'-107°02' East and latitudes 6°41-6°51' South. Administratively, it is shared between the Regencies of Bogor, Cianjur and Sukabumi.

The Gede-Pangrango area has been the centre of much research over the last two centuries, so establishing its worldwide reputation. Sir Thomas Raffles organised the building of a path on the south-eastern slopes in 1811, although the earliest recorded climb of Mount Gede was by C.G.C. Reinwardt in 1819. Other explorations were conducted by F.W. Junghuhn (1839-1861), J.E. Teysmann (1839), A.R. Wallace (1861), S.H. Koorders (1890), M. Treub (1891) and W.M. van Leeuen (1911). C.G.G.J. van Steenis (1920-1952) collected and studied here in preparation for his now famous book: "The Mountain Flora of Java". published in 1972.

Today many Indonesian and foreign scientists carry on the tradition and, as a result, these mountains are one of the most well researched tropical forest systems in the world. Even so, in such a set of complex ecosystems, exact relationships between the myriad of species will keep biologists intrigued for many decades to come. Climate, topography and vegetation all interact.

Gunung Gede-Pangrango, the twin volcanoes of West Java, is one of the first national parks in Indonesia. It covers a total forested area of 15,000 hectares. This area has a special place in the history of both conservation and botanical research in Indonesia. It includes the Cibodas Nature Reserve which has been the scene of numerous botanical and other studies for a period of well over a hundred years by a number of scientists and naturalists, including such eminent figures as Reinwardt, Junghunn and Wallace.

How to Get There

The park is within easy reach by road from Jakarta and Bandung, and the main entrance at Cibodas is situated about 120 km, or about 2.5 hours by car from Jakarta and 85 km or about 2 hours by car from Bandung.

It is also accessible from Cipanas and Pacet through Gunung Putri, just east of Cibodas; and from Sukabumi through Selabintana from the south at about 60 km or 1.5 hour by car from Bogor. Another entrance is at Situgunung, which can be reached through Cisaat, just west of Sukabumi. From these entrances (except from Situgunung) there are trails to the summits of Gunung Gede and Pangrango.

What to bring/Where to stay

Cool-weather clothing, rain coat, strong shoes for hiking, and camping equipments are recommended. Visitors have also to bring their own food, especiall for those who want to stay overnight in the park. Accomodation in the park is in simple guesthouses. The park also provides some camping grounds, including one at the Alun-alun Suryakencana, a flat area near the top of Gunung Gede. There are many hotels, villas and bungalows in the Puncak Pass-Cipanas area. This area is quite close to the Headquarters of the park.

Activities

Among the mountains in West Java, the twin volcanoes Gede-Pangrango are very famous for hiking and mountain climbing. There are 4 trails to go up to the summits of of the mountains; two trails are from Cibodas, one from Gunung Putri and another one from Selabintana, Sukabumi. Climbing the mountains and watching the sunrise from the top or the crater wall of Gunung Gede are the most exciting attractions for visitors.

Permit

A park entry permit is required for each visitor, and is available at the Park Headquarters, Cibodas.

You can enter the park by one of four gates :

- Cibodas Gate (Cianjur) is the main entrance and the site of the park Headquarters. It is located about 100 km from Jakarta/2.5 hour drive; 89 km from Bandung/2 hour drive.

- Gunung Putri Gate (Cianjur) is close to Cibodas and can be reached via Cipanas and Pacet.

- Selabintana Gate (Sukabumi) is 60 km from Bogor/1.5 hour drive, and 90 km from Bandung/2 hour drive.

- Situgunung Gate (Sukabumi) is 15 km from Selabintana in the direction of Bogor.

Except from Situgunung, Mount Gede and Pangrango summits may be reached on clearly marked trails.

Hiking Rules

1. All visitors must buy a ticket when entering the park. Recreational visit tickets can be obtained from ticket hatches at each of the four gates. In addition, mountain climbing permits are required:

- when leaving the main trail from Cibodas gate to Cibeureum Waterfall in order to climb to the hot water stream/Air panas;

- when turning off the trail to Cibeureum waterfall of Selabintana, Selabintana Gate;

- beyond Bobojong camping ground upon entering the National Park proper from Gunung Putri Gate.

2. Should you wish to climb the mountains you must obtain the permit either at the National Park Headquarters, Cibodas or at Selabintana Resort Office.

Register at the National Park Office:

Monday-Thursday 07.30 - 14.30

Friday 07.30 - 11.00

Saturday 07.30 - 13.30

You must submit:

- a photocopy of your valid I.D. Card or a parental permit (passport for foreign visitors)

- a travel statement from your local police (Indonesians)

- a health certificate from a physician (Indonesians)

3. A park guard will inspect your belongings and permit before you enter the park.

4. No domestic animals, including pets, are allowed in the park.

5. Do not bring weapons, such as knives, or hunting equipment into the park.

6. Radios and noisy appliances are not allowed in the park and special permission is required for the use of "walkie-talkies".

7. Do not light camp fires as there is a real risk of forest fire.

8. Do not interfere with, remove, vandalise or damage park property. This includes writing on stones or trees.

9. Do not pick flowers of pull up plants.

10. Hike only along main trails. Short cuts not only damage the forest but also are very dangerous.

11. Do not drop litter. Much time and effort has to be spent picking up bottles and other rubbish. Carry all your rubbish out of the park.

12. Do not pollute or foul rivers and when bathing do not use soap or other pollutants.

13. Report to the park guard when leaving the park and hand in your permit.

14. Alcoholic drinks are not allowed in the park.

Minimum Requirements (for mountain climbers)

Unless climbers are properly equipped they can run into serious trouble.

1. Minimum hiking gear: warm clothes, sleeping bag if staying on the mountain overnight, waterproof clothing, flashlight and medical kit.

2. Carry enough food and drink (non-alcoholic).

3. Do not climb alone: there should be at least three people in your party and preferably you should be guided by someone with a knowledge of the trail.

Climate & Weather

Gede Pangrango is one of the wettest parts of Java with a mean annual rainfall between 3,000 and 4,000 mm and with, even in the four driest consecutive months of the year, still more than 40 rainy days. The wettest season is from October to May, coinciding with the North West moonsoon, with more than 200 mm of rain every month and over 400 mm per month between December and March (the park is usually closed during this period). The best time for visiting this park is during the driest months (June-September), when average monthly rainfall drops below 100 mm. Annual average temperature varies from about 18°C in Cibodas to less than 10°C at the top of Gunung Pangrango while the relative humidity varies between 80% and 90%.

Annual rainfall is high. The average is in the range of 3,000-4,200 mm per annum, making the area one of the wettest parst of java. The rainy season occurs from October to May, the monthly average of 200 mm rising to over 400 mm in the period from December to March. The dry season occurs from June to September, rainfall dropping to below 100 mm per month. Visitors are asked to be especially careful at this time as the vegetation is easily ignited.

Relative humidity is likewise high, espesially in the forest at night. However, during the dry season humidity on the peaks swings from a night- time low of 30% to an afternoom high of over 90%. These variations have a marked effect on plant communities.

Daily temperature at Cibodas averages around 18°C, while on the peaks of Mount Gede and Pangrango the average is a chilly 10°C. Night-time temperature on the peaks may drop below 5°C. Frasts occur regularly so warm clothing is essential to anyone intending to climb to the summit. The National Park is an important hydrological catchment.

Geography & Topography

Gunung Gede and Pangrango are a part of the great belt of volcanoes which extends in an arch through Sumatera, Java and the Lesser Sundas. These volcanoes were formed during the Quarternary period between 3 million years ago and the present time. Pangrango and Gede are thus comparatively new mountains geologically, though the former is the older of the two, no longer displaying any sign of volcanic activity, while Gede is still semi-active with a well-defined crater within which gases escape from fumaroles.

Gunung Gede (2,958 m) and Pangrango (3,019 m) are connected by a high saddle at about 2,500 m. Slopes are very steep and are incised by valleys forming steep-sided ridges between them radiating out towards the flat plains of Bogor-Cianjur and Sukabumi.

Flora & Fauna

Gunung Gede-Pangrango is covered with splendid mountain forest and at present it is one of the last mountain forests of the West Java where the forest is still relatively undisturbed.

The high forest between 1,400 and 2,400 m has a very mixed composition. The canopy is about 30-40 m high with an abundant development of laurels (Litsea spp.), oaks (Lithocarpus spp. and Quercus spp.) and chesnuts (Castanopsis spp.).

Emergents of this forest include the grand rasamala (Altingia excelsa) and the conifers (Podocarpus imbricatus and Podocarpus neriifolius).

The Puspa (Schima walichii) is common in West-Java's rainforest and often conspicuous by its reddish flush that at times colours the whole forest canopy.At the attitude of about Kandang Badak, the saddle at 2,400 m between Gunung Gede and Pangrango, one enters the sub-alpine or elfin forest. This forest has only one stratum of smallish trees and a ground layer. Due to their better resistance against crater gases, Vaccinium varingiaefolium, Rhododendron retusum and Myrsine avenis are more common close to the crater area even a pure Vaccinium varingiaefolium forest has developed. One of the characteristic plants of the top areas of these mountains is the Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica).

We can hear everywhere birds singing and see them flying especially in the early morning. There are about 200 species of bird in the area, including the pygmy tit (Psaltris exilis) which is only know from west Java's mountains and the sole representative of an endemic genus. Primate species which occur in the park include the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch), Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis aygula), silvered leaf monkey (Presbytis cristata), and the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Leopard (Panthera pardus) is still the only large predator of West Java, besides the extremely rare wild dog (Cuon alpinus) which also exists in this park.

Other species of mammals are the wild pigs (Sus scrofa), the Javanese/stink badger (Mydaus javanensis), the leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) and the yellow-throated martin (Mustela flavigula).

The park is home to manyspecies of mammal. These include the stink badger (Mydaus javanensis), flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), lesser mousr-deer (Tragulus javanicus) and two species of wild pig (Sus scrofa and S.verrucosus).

Four species of primate live here and are all frequently seen : Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata), ebony leaf monkey (trachythecus auratus), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). The two Javanese endemics are currently listed as endangered.

Other rare mammals include leopard (panthera pardus), leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) and wild dog (Cuon alpinus javanicus). Junghuhn's observations of 1839 tell us that Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) once roamed the erea; regrettably no recent records exist.

Many different kinds of bird inhabit the park; more than 251 species from the Javan list of 450 have been recorded. Scaece or beautiful birds, such as the Javan hawk-eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi), the blue-tailed trogon (Harpactes reinwardteii)(Otus angelinae) attract bird-watchers from all over the world.

Places of Interest

Even though famous as an historic biological/ecological research site, the park also has an important role to play in recreation and ecotourism. Many activities, besides mountain climbing/hiking, can be enjoyed. Popular pursuits include taking in the natural scenery, observing wildlife, photography and camping.

1. Telaga Biru/The Blue Lake (1,575 m a.s.1.)

Location: 1.5 km/15 minute walk from Cibodas Gate. The name derives from the presence of blue-green algae which colour the water. The observant visitor might weel be rewarded with views of the white-crowned forktail (Enicurus leschenaulti), a striking pied bird which methodically searches streams and lake margins for food. The surrounding area is transitional from sub-montane to montane vegetation.

2. Cibeureum Waterfall (1,625 m a.s.1.)

Location: 2.8 km/1 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. Not one but three waterfalls, formed from the Cikundul, Cidendeng, and Cibeureum rivers, cascade over a dramatic cliff. A red moss (Sphagnum gedeanum), endemic to the mountains of West Java, can be seen growing on the rocky outcrops. Many of the bast seen flying atound come the nearby bat cave of Gua Lalay.

3. Hot Water Stream (2,150 m a.s.1.)

Location: 5.3 km/2 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. The water temperature here can be as high as 75°C butdrops during times of rain. An algae, remarkably adapted both to hot water and to high sulphur levels, grows in the stream bed.

4. Kandang Batu/Rocky Area (2,220 m a.s.l.)

Location: 5.6 km/2.5 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. As a result of the Gede eruptions rocks and boulders litter the area. Many fresh springs emerge here providing a good source of drinking water.

5. Kandang Badak/Rhino "Home" (2,400 m a.s.l.)

Location: 7.8 km/3.5 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. The area is relatively flat, consisting of a saddle connecting the peaks of Mount Gede and Mount Pangrango. The vegetation is transitional from montane to sub-alpine.

6. Summit and Crater of Mount Gede (2,958 m a.s.l.)

Location: 9.7 km/5 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. Three semi-active craters are grouped together: Lanang (male), Ratu (queen) and Wadon (female). Acid rocks, sulphur-rich gas emissions and an inhospitable climate create "tough" adverse conditions. In response, a fascinating plant community has developed including the fern (Selliguea feei), the ericaceous Vaccinium varingiaefolium and two species of rhododendron (Rhododendron retusum and R.javanicum).

7. Suryakencana Meadow (2,750 m. a.s.l.)

Location: 11.8 km/6 hour walk from Cibodas Gate; 6.9 km/3.5 hour from Gunung Putri and 9 km/5 hour walk from Selabintana. The meadow, 50 ha in area, is situated between Mounts Gede and Gumuruh and is one of several well known sites within the park for the Javanese eidelweiss or "eternal flower".

8. Mount Pangrango Summit (3,019 m a.s.l.)

Location: 3 km/3 hour walk from Kandang Badak; 11 km/7 hour walk from Cibodas Gate. Mount Pangrango is less visited than Gede; the climb is much steeper and the summit more wooded. The peak, the tallest in the park, overlooks the small, 5 ha, high altitude Mandalawangi meadow.

9. Cibeureum Waterfall of Selabintana (900 m a.s.l)

Location: 2.4 km/45 minute walk from Selabintana Gate. The waterfall is 35 m high, making it the highest waterfall in the National Park.

10. Sawer Waterfall (1,200 m a.s.l.)

Location: 2 km/20 minute walk from Situgunung Gate. Fed by a large stream, this waterfall is notable as the one with the greatest flow and largest volume of water.

11. Camping Sites

Two camping sites are available in the park: Gunung putri Site with room for 100 campers; Selabintana Site with room for 150 campers.

 

  

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