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Gunung Ciremei adalah gunung tertinggi di Jawa Barat ( 3.078 Mdpl ), dapat terlihat dengan jelas oleh para penumpang kereta api atau kendaraan umum lainnya sepanjang jalur pantura sekitar Cirebon.

Untuk menuju puncak Ciremei terdapat 3 jalur yang dapat ditempuh yakni jalur Majalengka, jalur Palutungan dan, jalur Linggarjati. Jalur Linggarjati merupakan yang paling terjal dan terberat, namun jalur ini merupakan yang paling sering dilalui pendaki.

JALUR LINGGAJATI CIREBON

Desa Linggajati 14 km dari kota Kuningan atau 24 km dari kota Cirebon. Dari Jakarta dapat ditempuh menggunakan bus jurusan Kuningan atau kereta api jurusan Cirebon yang disambung dengan bus atau kendaraan umum jurusan Cirebon - Kuningan. Dari pertigaan Linggajati berjalan kaki sekitar 2,5 km menuju Musium Linggajati yang dulunya adalah sebuah hotel bersejarah yang menjadi saksi bisu tempat Bung Karno dengan pemerintah kolonial Belanda melakukan penandatanganan Perjanjian Ling garjati.

Terdapat pula Taman Linggajati Indah, Taman seluas 11 hektar ini dilengkapi berbagai sarana rekreasi, antara lain kolam renang dan sumber mata air Cibulakan, Silinggonom, Balong Renteng, Rekreasi air dan kolam pancing, Tempat istirahat, Cottage, Villa, Hutan wisata, Bumi perkemahan dll. Pos penjagaan berjarak lebih kurang 500 m dari Musium Linggajati, kita perlu mendaftarkan diri serta membayar asuransi per orang Rp.3.000,- .

Siapkan bekal Anda terutama air karena susah sekali memperoleh air selama di perjalanan. Para pendaki dapat menggunakan jasa penduduk atau petugas penjaga pos untuk membimbing perjalanan mereka ke puncak. Jalur menuju puncak sangat jelas dan banyak tanda-tanda penunjuk jalan, sehingga pendaki yang baru pertama kalipun tidak akan tersesat.

Selepas dari Pos Pendaftaran dengan melintasi jalanan beraspal pendaki memasuki kawasan hutan Pinus dan persawahan hingga Cibeunar yang berada di ketinggian 750 mdpl. Tempat ini sangat ramai dengan para pendaki yang ingin mengadakan pendakian maupun renaja yang sekedar camping. juga terdapat sumber air yang cukup melimpah, yang tidak akan ditemui lagi sepanjang perjalanan sampai di puncak.

Selepas Cibeunar lintasan akan melewati ladang penduduk dan kawasan hutan pinus hingga memasuki Leuweng Datar di ketinggian 1.285 mdpl. Leuweng Datar terletak di tengah-tengah hutan tropis. Selepas daerah ini lintasan mulai menanjak dan melewati area yang cukup datar sebagai camp yakni Sigedang dan Kondang Amis (1.350mdpl).

Untuk sampai di Kuburan Kuda diperlukan waktu sekitar 2 jam perjalanan. Blok Kuburan Kuda berada pada ketinggian 1.580 mdpl, merupakan lapangan datar yang cukup luas dan cukup teduh sebagai tempat perkemahan. Daerah ini dianggap keramat bagi masyarakat setempat. Di dekat jalur terdapt kuburan kuda.

 

Selepas Kuburan Kuda, jalur semakin curam dan kita akan sampai di Pengalap (1.790 mdpl).Dengan sudut lintasan yang mulai membesar kita akan melewati Tanjakan Bin-Bin (1.920 mdpl) dan semakin menanjak lagi ketika melewati Tanjakan Seruni.

Tanjakan Seruni (2.080 mdpl) adalah lintasan yang terberat dan melelahkan dibanding yang lainnya. Bahkan pendaki akan menemui jalan setapak yang terputus dan setengah memanjat, dan memaksanya berpegangan akar pepohonan untuk mencapai pos selanjutnya. Belum lagi bila hujan turun, jalur ini akan menjadi lintasan aliran air hujan seperti air terjun. Begitu juga dengan jalur berikutnya hingga sampai di Tanjakan Bapak Tere (2.200 mdpl)

Selepas Tanjakan Bapatere lintasan tetap menanjak hingga sampai di Batu Lingga dengan waktu tempu sekitar 2,5 jam. Batu Lingga (2.400 mdpl) merupakan pos peristirahatan yang berupa tanah datar dan terdapat sebuah batu berukuran besar dahulunya tempat Wali songo bersolat dan berkotbah. Pos ini adalah tempat yang keramat, konon pawa Wali sering mengadakan pertemuan di tempat ini menurut kesaksian para pendaki kehadiran para wali ini ditandai dengan gumpalan cahaya yang terbang di tempat ini. Di tempat ini terdapat dua buah batu nisan.

Meninggalkan kawasan Batu Lingga lintasan tetap menanjak. Di tengah perjalanan pendaki akan menemui dua pos peristirahatan berupa tanah datar yakni Sangga Buana Bawah (2.545 mdpl) dan Sangga Buana Atas (2.665 mdpl). Selepas itu pendaki akan memasuki batas vegetasi antara hutan dengan daerah terbuka.

Untuk sampai di Pangasinan. Pangasinan berada pada ketinggian (2.860 mdpl) merupakan pos terakhir. tempatnya lebar sehingga cukup untuk membuka belasan tenda, meskipun lokasinya agak berbukit-bukit. Kabut dan hujan yang sering muncul dipuncak meskipun di musim kemarau menyisakan genangan air di celah-celah bebatuan sehingga bisa dimanfaatkan untuk minum dan memasak.

Diperlukan waktu sekitar 1 jam untuk merangkak melewati bebatuan cadas untuk sampai di puncak. Hujan deras sering muncul di puncak sehingga aliran air terkucur dari atas membasahi para pendaki. Di puncak pendaki bisa memandang melihat kota Cirebon dan laut Jawa, kapal-kapal besar nampak dikejauhan. Kearah Timur tampak gunung Slamet dengan puncaknya yang tertutup awan.

Puncak gunung Ciremei memiliki kawah yang sangat curam dan sangat indah, pendaki yang nekad sering turun ke kawah untuk membuat tulisan di atas lumpur kawah. Pejiarah sering datang untuk berdoa dipuncak ini. Mereka mendaki dengan berpuasa dan makan bekal nasi bungkus setelah tiba di puncak. Bandingkan pejiarah dengan para pendaki gunung yang setiap saat makan dan minum saja kadang masih juga tidak sampai puncak.

Banyak sekali pendaki yang hanya berkemah di pertengahan pos dan tidak sanggup meneruskan perjalanan ke puncak, karena medan yang berat dan susahnya air, dan kembali turun, untuk itu persiapkan bekal yang berlebih dan bawalah tenda. Karena kemungkinan besar perjalanan akan tertunda, sehingga harus bermalam.

JALUR PALUTUNGAN KUNINGAN

Jalur Palutungan tidak seterjal jalur linggajati, namun waktu tempuh yang diperlukan menjadi lebih panjang. Palutungan merupakan sebuah kampung terakhir yang berada di lereng selatan gunung Ciremei dan berada pada ketinggian 1100 mdpl. Palutungan tepatnya berada di wilayah Desa Cisantana, Kec. Cigugur, Kab. Kuningan.

Dari terminal bus kota Kuningan naik angkutan pedesaan langsung ke jurusan Desa Palutungan. Dari Cirebon pendaki dapat menggunakan angkutan umum jurusan Cikijing dan turun di pertigaan Cigugur. Dari pertigaan Cigugur, perjalanan dilanjutkan menuju Cisantana melalui jalanan yang menanjak dan berbatu ditempuh selitar 1 jam, dengan melewati perkebunan penduduk. Dari Cisantana, perjalanan dilanjutkan kembali dengan naik angkutan sayur menuju Palutungan yang memakan waktu 20 menit.

Setelah mengurus perizinan untuk mendaki, perjalanan dapat dimulai melalui kebun penduduk, lalu belok ke kanan memasuki hutan tropis dengan jalur agak landai. Kadangkala harus melalui semak-semak tinggi. Untuk sampai di Cigowong membutuhkan waktu sekitar 3 jam perjalanan.

Pos I Cigowong terletak di ketinggian 1450 mdpl. Di sini terdapat sungai kecil sehingga pendaki dapat menyiapkan persediaan air sebanyak mungkin karena tidak akan ditemui lagi sumber air hingga puncak.

Selepas Cigowong lintasan masih landai memasuki hutan dan melewati Blok Kta yang berada di ketinggian 1.690 mdpl, dan akan sampai di Blok Pangguyangan Badak. Paguyangan Badak merupakan area yang berada di ketinggian 1.790mdpl. Daerah ini terdapat puing-puing bangunan tua.

Untuk sampai di Blok Arban perlu waktu sekitar 30 menit dengan lintasan yang mulai menanjak. Blok Arban diketinggian (2.030 mdpl) merupakan pos III dengan area yang cukup datar dan teduh.

Lintasan mulai menanjak dan sekitar 2,5 jam akan sampai di Tanjakan Asoy (2.108mdpl) yang merupakan pos IV. Tempat ini berupa tanah datar berukuran yg cukup luas. Selepas dari sini lintasan semakin menanjak dalam waktu 1 jam akan sampai di Blok Pesanggrahan (2.450mdpl) .

Selepas dari pos V (pasangrahan) pendaki mulai memasuki kawasan vegetasi yang ditumbuhi cantigi dan edelweiss sampai di Bolk SangHyang Ropoh (2.590 mdpl). Lintasan ini sangat licin jika hujan turun. SangHyang Ropoh (Pos VI) terletak di daerah yang datar dan terbuka.

Selepas pos VI lintasan masih curam dan licin, dengan tanah berwama kuning mengandung belerang. Selanjutnya kita akan sampai di pertigaan yang menuju ke jalur Apuy dan ke Kawah Gua Walet. Pada sisi kanan lintasan terdapat Kawah Gua Walet (2.925 mdpl) yang sering digunakan untuk bermalam dan berlindung dari cuaca buruk. Di sebelah kiri, lintasan akan menyatu dengan jalur Apuy (Majalengka).

Untuk sampai di puncak Ciremai (Puncak Sunan Cirebon) diperlukan waktu sekitar 1,5 jam. Sesampainya di puncak pendaki dapat menikmati indahnya pemandangan dua kawah kembar yang berdampingan. Untuk mengitari kawah ini diperlukan waktu kira-kira 3 jam. Selain itu, pendaki juga dapat menyaksikan ke arah barat indahnya kota Majalengka, ke arah utara panorama kota Cirebon dan Laut Jawa, serta dari kejauhan ke arah timur tampak Gunung Slamet yang tertutup awan. Di pagi hari pada bulan-bulan tertentu sunrise akan muncul tepat dari puncak gunung Slamet.

JALUR APUY MAJALENGKA

Dari pintu tol Palimanan, naik colt kecil sampe perempatan Palimanan . Selanjutnya naik angkot ke Terminal Kadipaten, dilanjutkan lagi ke perempatan Pasar lanjut lagi menuju terminal Maja Terminal Maja cukup ramai karena menyatu dengan pasar kecil. Pickup sayur ke Apuy udah ada sejak pk.05.00 pagi,

Meninggalkan Maja dengan pickup melewati bentangan lahan pertanian berkabut diselingi perkampungan kecil nan menawan. Di penghujung perjalanan, pickup melewati lorong perkampungan yang padat dan menanjak. Pick up sampai di depan papan petunjuk ke Curug Muara Raya + 600 m di sini terdapat sebuah mesjid. Mesjid berseberangan dengan Balai Desa, di antaranya terdapat pohon besar ditempeli papan penunjuk ke puncak Ciremai dan ke Curug. Di belakang mesjid terdapat MCK, masuk dari sisi kanan masjid. Sejajar sebelum balai desa terdapat warung makanan & minuman.

Perjalanan menuju Pos 1 melewati perkampungan dan lading-ladang sayuran. Jalan menuju Pos 1 beraspal dan bias dilewati mobil bak. Untuk menghemat tenaga bias mencarter mobil pickup hingga ke Pos 1 Blok Arban. Kalo pagi sebelum pk 07.00, pendaki bisa carter 4x4 Rp.50.000-70.000, tapi kalo di atas pk 07.00 tinggal pickup yang biaya carternya Rp.100.000.

Selepas ladang udara menjadi sejuk karena vegetasi cukup tinggi menanungi jalur. Humus daun-daun kering basah berwarna kecoklatan bergerisik di sepanjang jalur setapak. Bau tanah basah, daun-daun segar dan kehangatan cercah matahari mengintip dari balik pucuk-pucuk pohon, ditingkah desah nafas kami mengatur langkah. Satu dua kali terdapat percabangan pencari kayu, tetapi jalur utama tampak jelas. Orientasi kiri dan tentu saja tetap di punggungan. Perjalanan relatif santai dengan medan tidak terlalu terjal dan sesekali memberi sedikit ‘bonus’ (agak datar). Konser kicauan burung yang menyejukkan hati mengiringi sepanjang langkah kami. Pos Simpang Lima (1908 mdpl) berupa dataran cukup untuk 2-3 tenda kapasitas 4 orang.

Dari Pos 2 (Simpang Lima) menuju Pos 3 (Tegal Wasawa) memerlukan waktu tempuh sekitar 1 jam. Jalur semakin terjal, hutan makin tertutup dan ‘bonus’ menjadi langka. Cercah mentari perlahan meredup dan udara menjadi semakin sejuk. Sekitar 100 m menjelang pos III, terdapat simpang tiga yang cukup jelas, pertemuan jalur baru dan jalur lama. Jalur di sisi kanan merupakan jalur lama dari pos I yang melewati situ (danau) dan kuburan dengan track agak melambung. Kami mengambil jalur kiri menuju ke pos III. Pos III (Tegal Wasawa) 2.400 mdpl) berupa dataran cukup untuk 1 tenda kapasitas 4.

Dari Pos 3 Tegal Wasawa menuju Pos 4 Tegal Jamuju (2.600 mdpl) waktu yang ditempuh relatip cukup pendek sekitar 35 menit. Medan berupa tanah yang cukup padat melintasi hutan yang cukup lebat dan rindang. Sesekali kita melintasi akar-akar pohon.

Dari Pos 4 (Tegal Jamuju) menuju Pos 5 Sanghiang Rangkah (2.800 mdpl) waktu tempuh sekitar 1 jam 20 menit. Perjalanan menuju Pos 5 cukup panjang dan terjal. Pos V merupakan pertemuan jalur Apuy dan Palutungan, di sebelah kanan terdapat papan penunjuk jalur. Palutungan menuju Sanghiang Ropoh, Pos VII jalur Palutungan. Di sisi jalur menurun ke bawah, terdapat sungai kering. Beberapa bagian jalur sungai tsb. terdapat ceruk dengan genangan air.

Pos 5 Sanghiang Rangkah menuju Pos 6 Goa Walet yang berada diketinggian 2.950 m dpl perlu waktu tempuh sekitar 2 jam. Jalur berbatu menganak sungai membuat perjalanan melambat. Di tengah jalur batu, terdapat sebatang pohon yang ditempel papan penunjuk ke puncak dan turun ke arah Palutungan.

Pos 6 Goa Walet menuju Puncak Ciremei sudah dekat hanya perlu waktu 35 menit.

Puncak Ciremei dari sisi Selatan terdapat tugu penanda puncak tertinggi gunung Ciremei.

Ciremai Mountain  is West Java's Tallest Mountain, is  Located in Kuningan Regency. Mt. Ciremai with 3,078 m high is West Java's tallest mountain and is still an active volcano; the barren upper part of its cone bears witness to recent eruptions, the last being in 1805.

The climb, starting from either Cipari or Linggarjati, is strenuous and takes about eight hours, the descent five hours. It seems to be advisable to climb from Apui on the western flank and descend to Linggarjati. The crater rim is sometimes so narrow that you cannot walk on it but have to detour through the thicket.

Junghuhn reported in the 19th century that the Javanese used to hunt rhinos here by placing sharp blades in their paths through the bush.

 

Photo by Jeany Irma, Ariesnawati, Steve

 

Mount Ciremai National Park is located in the province of West Java, Indonesia. Some endemic or endangered flora and fauna are being protected in this national park, such as Pinus merkusii, Castanopsis javanica, Fragraera blumii, Villubrunes rubescens, Macaranga denticulatan, Lithocarpus sundaicus, Elaeocarpus stipularis, Ardisia cymosa, Platea latifolia, Leopard, Javan Muntjac, Zaglossus bruijni[citation needed], Javan Surili, Javan Hawk-eagle and Python species.

Mount Ceremai is adminis tratively included in the three districts, namely Kabupaten Cirebon, Kuningan and Majalengka Regency, West Java Province. The geographical position of the peak is located at 6 ° 53 '30 "latitude and 108 ° 24' 00" east, with an altitude of 3078 m above sea level. This mountain is the highest mountain in West Java.

This mountain has a double crater. Western crater radius is truncated by a crater 400 m east of radius 600 m. At an altitude of about 2900 m on the southern slope there are ex-point eruption Gowa called Swallow.

Now G. Ciremei included in the National Park area of Mount Ciremei (TNGC), which has a total area of approximately 15,000 hectares.

The name is derived from the word mountain Ciremei (Phyllanthus acidus, a type of plant small shrubs with rada sour fruit), but it is often called Ciremei, a symptom hiperkorek due to the many place names in the region Pasundan that use the prefix 'ci-' for the naming of places.

Mount Ciremei including Quaternary active volcano, type A (ie, magmatic volcanoes is still active since 1600), and shaped strato. This mountain is a volcano solitary, separated by a Fault Zone Cilacap - Brass from the group of West Java volcanoes east (ie row Galunggung Mountain, Thunder Mountain, the volcano, Mount Patuha to Mount Tangkuban Boat) located in Bandung Zone.

Ceremai is the third generation volcano. The first generation is a Pleistocene volcano located next to G. Ciremei, as an advanced Plio-Pleistocene volcanism above Tertiary rocks. Volcanism second generation is Mount Gegerhalang, which before the collapse to form Gegerhalang Caldera. And volcanism third generation in Holocene time form of G. Ciremei that grows on the north side Gegerhalang Caldera, which is estimated to occur in about 7,000 years ago (Situmorang 1991).

Eruption G. Ciremei recorded since 1698 and the last time occurred in 1937 with the shortest rest interval of 3 years and the longest 112 years. Three eruptions in 1772, 1775 and 1805 occurred in the central crater, but did not cause significant damage. The eruption of sulfur steam and copy the new fumaroles at the center of the crater wall occurred in 1917 and 1924. On June 24, 1937 - January 7, 1938 freatik eruption in the central crater and radial cracks. Distribution of ash reached an area of 52.500 square km (Kusumadinata, 1971). In 1947, 1955 and 1973 tectonic earthquake that struck the southwestern G. Ciremei presumably related to the fault structure trending southeast - northwest. Genesis quake damaged several buildings in the area west of Maja and Talaga G. Ciremei occurred in 1990 and 2001. Tremors felt in the east to the Village Cilimus G. Ciremei.

The forests are still experienced at Mount Ceremai stay longer at the top. On the bottom, especially in areas which in the past managed as production forests Perhutanioffice, these forests have been converted to pine forest (Pinus), or shrubs, which are formed due to repeated fires and grazing. Now, most of the forests under the height... m above sea level. managed in the form of agro-forestry (agro forests) by the local community.

As usual in the mountains of Java, the more a person climbing to the top of Mount Ciremei was found in a row mountain forest types under (submontane forest), upper Montana forests (Montana forest) and forest subalpine (subalpine forest), and then region- not open wooded area around the summit and crater.

Furthermore, based on micro-climatic conditions, LIPI (2001) distinguish Ciremei environment on the plateau of wet and dry highlands. For example, land in the Resort Cigugur (Palutungan point, the southern mountains) including micro-wet climates, and at the Resort Setianegara (lane north Linggarjati) micro-dry climates.

In general, Palutungan hiking paths (in the south of Mount Ciremei), Apuy (west), and Linggarjati (east) in succession from bottom to top going through the settlement lands, fields and gardens of the population, mixed pine forest plantations with field plots in forest areas (intercropping), and the last mountain rain forest. While in line Padabeunghar (north) of vegetation were combined with shrubs that are associated with desert weeds. In the fourth route, the rain forest Mountains can be divided again into three types namely lower Montana forests, upper Montana forests and vegetation subalpine around the crater. Except subalpine vegetation that is alleged to have disturbed by fire, mountain rain forests of this condition is still relatively intact, and appeared green canopy stratification is quite clear.

The diversity of wildlife in Ciremei quite high. The research group of nature lovers Lawalata IPB in April 2005 to get 12 species of amphibians (frogs and toads), various types of reptiles such as chameleons, geckos, lizards and snakes, more than 95 species of birds, and more than 20 species of mammals.

Mount Ciremei is highpoints West Java (3078 mdpl), can seen clearly by passengers trains or vehicles other generally along lane Pantura approximately Cirebon. To toward peak Ciremei there 3 pathway can pursued namely lane Majalengka lane Palutungan and lane Linggarjati.

Path Linggarjati represents most precipitous and heaviest, but this pathway represents most frequently traveled climbers. Mount Ceremai has distinctive compared mountains else in Java. This mountain situated far apart from mountain other higher and sides is the sea Java. Trip to G. Ceremai can begins from terminals Cirebon, climbed bus toward Kuningan and alight at Cilimus.

From Cilimus we connect with vehicles colt or ojek to village Linggarjati. In villages Linggarjati, we can staying at Hotel Linggarjati. From hotels Linggarjati we continue journey through buildings Scriptwriter westward until approximately Balai Desa Linggarjati.

Here we meet someone former climbers or precisely caretaker, Experienced named pak Ahmad, who because age now he experiencing disturbances eyesight. Photo caretaker mountain Ciremai a respected. From here we walked straight and will meet pinery, ago we will until on roads branched, called Cibunar. In this place we can founded tents because availableOne wellspring.

Travel continued with selecting road left toward mountaintop Ciremai. 5 hours later we shall meet an boulder, whose location pledged POS recess called Watu Lingga. From Lingga toward peak (crater) pursued within 2-3 hour journey through forests and rocklike rocks. From peak outward we could directly into crater brimstone which takes about 1 hours drive. To circled peak needed time 2 hours, we can view interesting sights towards town Majalengka, Bandung, Sea Java and other. Down from peak to village Linggarjati taken within 3-4 hours.

Gunung Ceremai merupakan daerah penting bagi burung (IBA, Important Bird Areas JID 24), sekaligus daerah burung endemik (EBA, Endemic Bird Areas DBE 160). Beberapa jenisnya berstatus rentan (IUCN:VU, vulnerable), misalnya celepuk jawa (Otus angelinae) dan ciung-mungkal jawa (Cochoa azurea). Tercatat pula sekurangnya 18 spesies yang lain yang berstatus burung sebaran terbatas (restricted area bird) seperti halnya puyuh-gonggong jawa (Arborophila javanica), walik kepala-ungu (Ptilinopus porphyreus), takur bututut (Megalaima corvina), berkecet biru-tua (Cinclidium diana), poksai kuda (Garrulax rufifrons), cica matahari (Crocias albonotatus), opior jawa (Lophozosterops javanicus), kenari melayu (Serinus estherae), dan lain-lain.

Cucak gunung adalah salah satu jenis burung sebaran terbatas yang ditemukan di Ceremai Beberapa jenis mamalia penting yang terdapat di TNGC, di antaranya, macan tutul (Panthera pardus); surili (Presbytis comata); lutung budeng (Trachypithecus auratus); kukang jawa atau muka geni (Nycticebus javanicus); kijang muncak (Muntiacus muntjak); dan pelanduk jawa (Tragulus javanicus).

Beberapa pendaki pernah didatangi macan atau mungkin harimau jawa di malam hari ketika sedang berkemah.

Di wilayah Gunung Ceremai ini, hutan di bawah 1.000 m semula merupakan kawasan hutan produksi yang dikelola Perhutani KPH Kuningan. Hutan-hutan ini telah berubah menjadi hutan tanaman tusam dan beberapa jenis pohon kayu yang lain. Sementara hutan pada ketinggian 1.000 m ke atas sebelumnya adalah hutan lindung, yang sebagiannya telah rusak terganggu oleh letusan gunung, dan kemudian oleh aktivitas masyarakat serta kebakaran hutan. Berdasarkan kondisi iklimnya, hutan-hutan pegunungan ini bisa dibedakan atas hutan dataran tinggi basah di bagian selatan (Cigugur dan sekitarnya) dan hutan dataran tinggi yang lebih kering di sebelah utara di wilayah Setianegara dan sekitarnya.

 Hutan di zona pegunungan basah dari Cigugur ke arah puncak Ceremai cukup kaya akan jenis pohon. Tercatat di antaranya jenis-jenis saninten (Castanopsis argentea, C. javanica, C. tungurrut) dan pasang (Lithocarpus elegans dan L. sundaicus) dari suku Fagaceae; jenitri (Elaeocarpus obtusus, E. petiolatus dan E. stipularis), suku Elaeocarpaceae; mara (Macaranga denticulata) dan kareumbi (Omalanthus populneus), suku Euphorbiaceae; aneka jirak (Symplocos fasciculata, S. spicata, S. sessilifolia, S. theaefolia), Symplocaceae; jenis-jenis ara (di antaranya Ficus padana dan F. racemosa), Moraceae; puspa (Schima wallichii) dan ki sapu (Eurya acuminata), Theaceae; dan lain-lain.

Semak belukar elfin (subalpin) dekat puncak Ceremai Di bagian yang lebih kering di Setianegara, hutan didominasi oleh jenis-jenis huru atau medang (Litsea spp.), saninten (C. argentea dan C. javanica), mara (Macaranga tanarius), mareme (Glochidion sp.), bingbin (Pinanga javana), dan pandan gunung (Pandanus sp.. Di bagian yang lebih atas zona montana ini juga didapati dominansi dari jamuju (Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Podocarpaceae) yang membentuk sabuk vegetasi khusus

JALUR LINGGAJATI
Bus dari kota Cirebon jurusan Kuningan turun di pertigaan Lingga jati. Dari pertigaan Jalan / ojek / angkot sekitar 2,5 Km menuju musium Lingga jati. Dari musium jalan ke atas 100 meter menuju Pos Pendakian.

JALUR PALUTUNGAN
Dari terminal Kuningan naik mobil angkutan ke Desa Palutungan.

JALUR APUY
Dari Cirebon naik bus jurusan ke kota Majalengka. Disam bung naik mini bus ke Maja. Ganti angkutan pedesaan ke Desa Cipanas. Dengan menggu nakan angkutan pedesaan dilanjutkan menuju ke Desa Apuy.

  • Kraton Kasepuhan Cirebon
  • Masjid Agung Cirebon
  • Kraton Kanoman
  • Kraton Kacirebonan
  • Gua Sunyarigi
  • Linggarjati
  • Musium Linggarjati
  • Situs purbakala Cipari peninggalan jaman batu.
  • Makam Sunan Gunungjati

Tempat - tempat yang kebetulan menjadi pos tetapi mempunyai nuansa mistik teramat kuat. Unik nya, tiap - tiap nama pos mempu nyai latar belakang tersendiri serta berbeda antar satu dengan lainnya.

Di antaranya adalah blok kuburan kuda. Di areal ini konon terdapat kuburan kuda milik tentara jepang. Kuda tersebut , biasa dipergunakan oleh para kempetai untuk me ngontrol para pekerja rodi yang menanam kopi. Dan kuburan yang terletak di sebelah barat jalur pendakian, sampai sekarang masih ada dan dikeramatkan oleh pendu duk setempat.

Blok papa tere lain lagi. Konon, dahulu di sini pernah terjadi pembu nuhan terhadap seorang anak yang dilakukan oleh ayah tirinya. Bermula sang anak diajak oleh ayah tirinya untuk mendaki gunung Ceremai. Setibanya di tempai ini , sang ayah langsung menikam anaknya hingga tewas.

Sedangkan blok batu lingga merupa kan tempat yang sangat disakralkan oleh penduduk setem pat. Untuk itu, guna menghindari hal hal yang tak diinginkan maka para pendaki pun dilarang untuk men duduki sebuah batu besar atau berbuat yang tak senonoh di tempat ini. Konon, batu ini pernah dijadikan tempat berkotbah wali songo kepada para pengikutnya.

Di dekat batu lingga terdapat sebuah in memoriam pendaki. Menurut kisah pendaki itu tewas karena sesuatu yang aneh di batu lingga. Menurut kepercayaan, blok batu lingga ini di jaga oleh dua makluk halus bernama aki dan nini serentet buntet.

Blok sangga buana, yang arti harfiahnya adalah penyangga bumi. Areal ini berfungsi untuk menahan aliran lahar bila gunung ceremai meletus. Maksudnya agar lahar tidak mengarah ke linggarjati, tetapi ketempat lain.

Dan akhirnya adalah blok pengsungan atau pengasinan tempatnya amat terbuka. Disini terdapat ladang yang tak pernah layu , edelweiss. Dari tempat ini kita dapat memandang lepas keindahan kota Cirebon serta pemandangan laut Jawa. Bukan hanya itu, disini juga kita bisa puas memandang keindahan matahari terbit. Jarang orang mengetahui jika tempati ini sejajar dengan puncak gunung Slamet yang ada di jawa tengah.

Menurut sejarah, pada masa pen dudukan Jepang, pengasinan merupakan tempat pembuangan tawanan perang. Mungkin karena itu pada malam malam tertentu, sering terdengar suara jeritan atau derap langkah kaki para serdadu jepang. Sudah barang tentu, suara itu datang dari alam halus.

 
Kantor Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Ciremai

Jln. Raya Kuningan-Cirebon Km 9 No. 1 Manislor, Jalaksana Kuningan Jawa Barat 45554

Kantor SPTN Wilayah I Kuningan Jln Raya Cibeureum, Ds Cibeureum, Kec Cilimus, Kuningan

Kantor SPTN Wilayah II Majalengka Jln. Raya Majalengka-Maja Km 5 Ds Kawung Hilir, Cigasong, Majalengka

telp/fax :
(0232) 613152

email :
btn_gciremai@ymail.com

 

 
The grave of Sunan Gunung Jati One of the wali songo

The most famous place of interest of Cirebon is about five kilometres north of the city, at the shore. It's the Astana Gunung Jati, the grave of Gunung Jati. The name origins from the small, 25 metre high hill, overgrown with djati trees - the 'Djati Mountain', is the translation.

This place seems an original village of the Hinduist harbour of Caruban, in which Syeh Datuk Kahfi, an Islamic speaker, arrived in the 15th century. Caruban got famous rapidly because it became the centre of conversion. The nowadays complex shows graves from the early 15th century. It a place of worship for pilgrims from all over Jawa.

On top of the hill, from Cirebon on the right side of the hill, is the grave of Syeh Datuk Kahfi. Besides the centuries old ramshackle brick walls a stone stairs leads to the top, from which people had a great view over the area. The holy grave of Sunan Gunung Jati and other graves, under which the graves of the royal families from Cirebon, a second hill can be found, Bukit Sembung, across the road towards the west.

There is a parking lot, surrounded by little shops with souvenirs, amulets and empty bottles for holy water. Persisting street sellers and 'guides' bother the tourists continuously. Pay the low entry price at the gate of the gate of candi bentar, and leave the sellers for what they are.

The most important mausoleums are located on a hill at the back of the complex. They are only opened in high season and with special permission of the sultan. Luckily the graves lower on the hill and the mosque give an good impression of the place. Just like in the palaces of Cirebon the pavilions are built with wood-carved constructions, and the masonry walls contain Delft tiles and Chinese plates. Picture: Sunan Gunung Jati Every 35 days, on Thursday Kliwon of the Jawanese calendar, as well as Muhammad's birthday, this grave hill is being flooded by pilgrims. Some 108 kraman (elderly) work here, which are descendants from crew of a ship that shipwrecked in the 16th century, as the story goes. They were appointed as guards and helpers of the royal graves by Gunung Jati. Still they use nautical terms and words; their tasks are identical to the watch at a ship.

Cirebon, the first big harbor east of Jakarta, is a modest trade city with about 225,000 inhabitants. Its name is often said to be derived from the Sundanese words of "Cai" (or river) and "Rebon" (or "shrimp"). The alternative Javanese derivation is from "Caruban", meaning "mixture", a reference to Cirebon's complex mix of Javanese, Malay, Sundanese, Chinese and Arabic cultural elements.

Aside from fishery, its harbor, Tanjung Emas, on the Java Sea has been a major hub for timber from Borneo. A small landing site Penggung also serves the TNI-AU. The city lies on Jalur Pantura (Pantai Utara Jawa), a major road on the northern coast of Java that stretches from Anyer, passes through Jakarta, and ends at Surabaya.

Cirebon was part of the Sunda kingdom as stated in the travel records of Prince Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu monk who visited all the holy Hindu sites in the islands of Java and Bali at the beginning of the 16th century AD. In his lontar manuscripts, which have been saved in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University in England since the 16th century, the borders of the Sunda kingdom in the west are the Sunda Straits and in the east are the Pamali River (present day Brebes River) and the Serayu River in Central Java Province.

In the Indojavanese time it was the most important harbor of the mighty Galuh kingdom, of which the capital was located in the fertile of the River Citanduy , not too far away from Ciamis. The harbor also opened the way to the River Cimanuk, which flows through Sumedang to the lake basin of Bandung. Because the coasts of Western Java are swampy and in some places rocky Cirebon and Sunda Kelapa (nowadays Jakarta), together with Banten in the far West, the main entries to the blooming highlands.

Nowadays Cirebon is on the crossing of a busy coastal road and the main road to Bandung. The harbor, main depot for the oil from the Java Sea, is famous for it's great catches of fish and other sea animals.

About the art traditions of Cirebon and surrounding area's there is not much known. It is clear that it was one of the most active area's for what about art, dance and music. Just like on Bali the disappearance of the royal leadership, didn't bother the production of arts. It even looks like that the inhabitants discovered new ways for their activities. There are clues that the villages North and West of Cirebon - Plered, Trusmi, Plumbon, Kalimanan, Arjawinangun, Susukan, Gegesik and other - were organised following the rules of the Sufi-tariqat or guilds, which were at least focused on an handicraft each.

Trisumi is know for it's batik, Plered for it's rattan furniture, Gegeris for it's paintings behind glass and topeng-dances. Maybe it's Cirebon, together with it's twin city of Indramayu, which have the most fame from it's extraordinary batiks. The big, remarkable motives in characteristic soga-brown, indigo, 'Turkish' red and creme colors give these batiks something special. The two most famous motives are Wadas Singa (Kasepuhan-lions besides a cave) in brown, black and creme, and Mega Mendung ('rain clouds'), in splendid bright colors. The unique thing about these batik techniques is the effect of the pencils, it is almost treated like a painting.

The Mecca for the Cirebon batiks is the sort of Ibu Masina in the village of Trusmi, twelve kilometres west of Cirebon. Leave the main road at the crossing to Weru, and follow the small road to the north; after about 500 meters the batik store and showroom can be found. Since the seventies, Ibu Mesina and her trained staff from Trusmi and Kalitengah brings alive the Cirebon motives.

The coastal kingdom The very origin of Cirebon

However the roots of Cirebon grow deep into the Indojawanese history, it's the arrival of the Islam which gave the city it's powerful position. Cirebon was most likely the first Islamic city kingdom of Java. Local cronics name Cakrabuana, Prince of Galuh-Pajajaran, which became harbor master of Cirebon.

After that he reformed towards Islam, and didn't want to be tributary anymore and defended himself successfully against the attacks of the king. This most likely took place in the early 15th century, since the room of the throne at the entrance of the Kasepuhan Palace is dated 1425.

The famous rise of Cirebon is more associated with Sunan Gunung Jati, one of the nine wali which prepared Java for the Islam a century afterward. Following an old story his father was a sultan from the Middle-East, and his mother a younger sister of Cakrabuana which had been to Mecca for the pilgrimage. The boy, born on Sumatera, was placed on his throne directly. He lead the reconstruction of the palace and got himself a fabulous reputation as one of the most holy persons of his time.

In the 16th century, the 'Golden Century' of the Islamic coastal kingdoms, Gunung Jati merged his kingdom with the mighty Demak and conquered Hindu ports like Sunda Kelapa and Banten later on. He died in 1568; his grave, north of Cirebon, is an important place of pilgrimage for Javanese and Sundanese Muslims.

During the 17th century another Islamic power developed on Java: the inland kingdom of Mataram. The coastal kingdoms were swept away - including royal families - by the Central Javanese armies of sultan Agung. Only the rulers of Cirebon succeeded to survive as fazals of Mataram, probably through their smart prearranged marriages and their religious leaders. Sultan Agung took a Cirebon princess as his wife, in which all Mataram rulers got connected to the coastal city through him.

Following royal stories the kingdom was split up peacefully in 1678. The three princes from Cirebon built new palaces. At about the same time Mataram had to pay the entire north to the Dutch as result of a war-debt. The sultans were obliged to sign contracts with the V.O.C., which got the monopoly over the im-, and export. On the other hand, the sultans were allowed to keep their kingdom and their privileges.

The following century the colonial power was a battle for existence. In the 18th century the population of Cirebon was decimated by epidemics and famine; gangs looted the surrounding area, while greedy Dutch servants filled up their pockets, without the permission of the Dutch government.

At the beginning of the 19th century a new colonial government was installed. The kingdom was split up under the heirs; today five different royal families still exist. From 1809 the sultans got a yearly income of 18.000 'rijksdaalders' (a Dutch coin with the value of 2,50 Guilder). The title of sultan was abolished. Ever since they have a retiring existence in their palaces, just like the rulers of Yogyakarta and Solo. They followed the Central Javanese rulers who became the patron of arts. In between a new European quarter appeared at the northern side of the city. Nowadays Cirebon looks the same as other not to big Javanese cities.

Places of interest Places of interest in and around Cirebon

At the western side of the old alun-alun is Mesjid Agung (Big Mosque). The layered, high meru-roof looks like the roof of an Hindu temple from the pre-Islamic time. The wall of red bricks which seals the terrain with nine gates, is a symbol of the wali songo, the nine holy Muslems. Following the kraton tradition the mosque was completed in 1500; which would made it the oldest on Java. In any way the most remarkable. Entire in old-Javanese style the roof is supported by four enormous pillars (soko guru). Just like the mosque of Demak one of the pillars was constructed in one night by Sunan Kalijaga, when he crushed the shreds of wood together.

The solid roof is made from an intricate system of beams, while the beautiful jati-wooden mimbar pulpit was decorated with Indo-Javanese kala-makara-motives. The portals are made from sculptured limestone, and decorated with mandala's. The big drum (bedug) which calls the religious people for their prayer, is named Sang Guru mangir.

The second palace of importance is 'Kraton Kanoman', or 'Palace of the youngest brother'. It's on walking distance from the mosque, just behind the busy market, Pasar Kanoman It was built about the same time as the Kasepuhan and it also looks like it a lot, but is smaller. A remarkable difference is that the Siti Inggil-pavilions in the northern part are built in a more modern way; robust entrances of bricks and plaster, decorated with Chinese plates.

The palace garden is also worth while a visit because of 'Paksi Naga Liman' The wagon has a remarkable resemblance with the one of Kasepuhan, but is much older. Nearby is the Kraton Kacirebonan (or Kacerbonan), which is originated from the 19th century Kanoman, but is smaller and more modern.

This neighborhood has two more 27th century monuments: an old mosque, the Mesjid Panjunan at Jalan Panjunan (Potter Street), one of Java's oldest Chinese temples, the Klenteng Thiaw Kak Sie at Jalan Pasuketan. This temple is consecrated to Kuan Yin, the Goddess of Mercy. The walls at the side of the big room are decorated with five big wall paintings, which express the ten Buddhist punishments. Picture: Taman Arum Sunyagari Lovers of eccentric architecture cannot miss Taman Arum Sunyaragi, the in 1703 completed royal house and fortress, almost five kilometers south of the city. It contains water basins and meditation rooms for sultans and their wives. Originally this complex was also surrounded by a canal.

Because the royal house was easy to defend, it served in 1787 - in times of heavy suppression, as well as in the Java War (1823-1830) as a center of resistance against the Dutch. The wars damaged the complex, and in 1853 it was restored. The Chinese contractor, which worked under sultan Sepuh, turned the royal house into a maze of Taoistic caves to an example of the Forbidden City in Bejing. Small stairs, sharp corners towards little rooms or just dead ends. Now it has been changed into a part, which doesn't have much of the original value.

Drive southwards, towards Kuningan, where the edge of a cliff gives a nice view over Cirebon and the coastal area.

 

Kuningan Cities and towns in West Java Province

Kuningan is a city and regency in eastern West Java, Indonesia, between Cirebon and Tasikmalaya, about 200 km east of Jakarta. The area is near Mount Cereme/Ciremai (3.078 m), the highest mountain in West Java. The mountain is located in the western part of the region. The eastern part is a valley. The city's landmark is a horse, called Kuda Kuningan and its motto is Kuningan Aman Sehat Rindang Indah or in short ust Kuningan ASRI.

The Linggarjati Museum represent the diorama of the agreement process between the Netherlands and Indonesia and commemorates the historical landmark of the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. Kuningan is located at the eastern foothills of Gunung Ceremai ('Mount Ceremai'), which is the highest mountain in West Java.

From Jakarta to Kuningan the way takes you through Cikampek and Cirebon; from Cirebon to Kuningan it is thirty-five kilometers. The Kuningan Regency covers an area of about 1,091 square kilometers with latitude between approximately 450 and 650 meters above sea level. Most of the land is hilly with cool air and there are also rivers and brooks in the region. There is lovely natural scenery and the pleasantly cool air mountain has a temperature of between 15° and 26° Celsius. The Kuningan Regency has as its emblem a stallion, which symbolizes dynamic, constructive, and creative as well as vigorous society of Kuningan, which established and crushed tyranny. To reach the tourism attractions of the Kuningan Regency, there is Public transportation available at the bus terminal in town. From Jakarta to Kuningan via Cirebon you can go by train or car, but if go via Bandung you can only use a car.

 

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