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To build a scared building to the worship of Dewi Tara and a monastery for Buddhist monk, Rakai Panangkaran who is Hinduism was granted Kalasan village to Buddhism. It is estimated that the building is the Kalasan temple because of the presence of place inside the temple where a statue of Dewi Tara used to be placed. The monastery for Buddhist monk is Sari temple, located not far from Kalasan temple. Base on the year when the Kalasan inscription was written, it is estimated that Kalasan temple was built in year 778 AD.

According to the archeologist, Kalasan temple has been restored three times. It is proofed by the presence of 4 angles at the base of the temple in slightly forward position. A written sign is mention that Van Romondt, a Dutch archeologist already restored Kalasan temple between in years 1927 to 1929. Today the followers of Buddhism from Tantrayana sect and Dewi Tara still use Kalasan temple for a worshiping place.

 

Candi Kalasan terletak tepat di tepi jalan Raya Yogya-Solo di Km 13. sedikit masuk ke dalam sekitar 50 meter. Candi Kalasan ini adalah peninggalan agama Budha yang tertua di daerah Yogyakarta dan Jawa Tengah.

Candi Kalasan didirikan oleh Panangkaran, Raja ke dua dari Kerajaan Mataram Kuno pada abad ke 8 masehi sebagai persembahan kepada Dewi Tara.

Lengkung Kala Makara dengan hiasan kahyangan di atasnya terpahat di atas pintu masuk dengan begitu indahnya. Keindahan hiasan dan relief-reliefnya disebabkan penggunaan sejenis semen kuno "bajralepa". Candi ini dianggap permata kesenian Jawa Tengah.

Kalasan Temple is built in Kalasan village about 2 km west of Prambanan, 15 km from Yogyakarta. _It is dedicated to a Buddhist Goddess, TARA. It is 6 meters tall and has 52 stupas. This unique Buddhist temple is located east of Yogyakarta, on the south side of the main road between Yogyakarta and Solo. It was built in honor of the marriage between king Pancapana of Sanjaya Dynasty and a Princess of Syailendra Dynasty, named Dyah Pramudya Wardhani. It is beautifully ornamented with finely carved relief and coated with "vajralepa", a yellowish material made from the sap of a certain tree. The vajralepa functioned as an adhesive and as protection against moss and mildew, while at the same time it refined the carvings. This temple is 24 m high and its base built in the form of a Greek cross.

Kalasan temple is located in Kalibening village, Tirtamani, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province, around 16 km to the east of Yogyakarta city. Kalasan inscription mentions that this temple is also known as Kalibening temple, referring to the place where the temple is situated. Another temple called Sari temple is situated not far from Kalasan temple. Both of the temples have similarities in magnificence of the building and the smooth carvings. Other unique characteristics found only in the two temples are the presence of vajralepa (bajralepa) to coat the sculptures and reliefs on the outer side of the wall.

A temple was typically built by a king or person who has authority over a specific area with various purposes such as a worshipping place, a religious teaching center, monastery, and administration center. The description of Kalasan temple is stated in the Kalasan inscription, written in the Javanese year of 700 (778 AD). The Kalasan inscription is written in Sanskrit language and pranagari letter. The inscription describes that spiritual counselors of the Syailendra dynasty had advised King Tejapurnapana Panangkarana to build a scared building to the worship of Dewi Tara and a monastery for Buddhist monks. According to Raja Balitung inscription (907 AD), Tejapurna Panangkarana refers to Rakai Panangkaran, the son of Sanjaya King from Hindu Mataram kingdom.

Rakai Panangkaran was the second king of Hindu Mataram kingdom. The kings from Sanjaya dynasty, a follower of Hinduism and worship Shiva, was ruled the northern region of Central Java in year between 750 and 850 AD. It is proofed by the characteristics of the temple around the district. The Syailendra dynasty, a follower of Buddhism’s sect, Mahayana and Tantryan was ruled southern district. The separation of the kingdom was influenced to the characteristics of the temple which built in each district. Both of dynasties finally were unified by the marriage of Rakai Pikatan Pikatan (838 - 851 AD) to Pramodawardhani, son of King Samarattungga from Syailendra dynasty.

 


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