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Candi Jawi terletak di pinggir jalan menuju Tretes. Berjarak sekitar 7 Km dari Tretes.

Candi ini selesai dibangun sekitar tahun 1300, merupakan salah satu Candi yang dipersembahkan untuk menghormati Prabu Kertanegara Raja terakhir dari Dinasti Kerajaan Singosari yang berkuasa dari tahun 1268 M dan wafat pada tahun 1292 Masehi.

Dari Candi Jawi ke arah utara tampak panorama Gn. Penanggungan yang memiliki bentuk runcing menyerupai gn.Semeru.. Ke arah selatan adalah pemandangan Gn. Arjuna dan Welirang. Candi Jawi adalah candi yang mengekspresikan perpaduan antara Siwaisme dan Budhisme seperti kepercayaan yang dianut Raja Kertanegara.

Pada masa pemerintahan Kertanegara banyak para pengikutnya yang merasa kurang senang atas kebijakan-kebijakan Raja yang tidak sesuai dengan para bangsawan muda pada saat itu. Salah satunya adalah Wiraraja, karena digeser dari jabatannya di istana Singosari menjadi adipatyi di Madura.

Saat itu di Kediri yang berkuasa adalah Jayakatwang keturunan Kertajaya Raja Kediri yang tewas ketika berperang melawan Ken Arok raja Tumapel (Singosari) pada tahun 1222 Masehi. Jayakatwang pada dasarnya adalah seorang ksatria yang sangat setia pada agama dan tidak ingin merebut kembali tahta leluhurnya yang dikuasai oleh Kertanegara. Namun para pengikutnya juga Wiraraja merasa tidak senang dan menghasut Jayakatwang untuk menuntut balas kematian leluhurnya itu.

Pada tahun 1292 M setelah ekspedisi Pamalayu, Jayakatwang dibantu Wiraraja melakukan penyerangan terhadap kerajaan Singosari. Menghadapi serangan yang mendadak tersebut Raja Kertanegara gugur bersama beberapa pejabat kerajaan.

Kertanegara didharmakan sebagai siwa-Budha di candi Jawi sebagai Bhairawa (salah satu perwujudan Siwa yang digambarkan sebagai raksasa yang sangat menakutkan), serta sebagai Wairocana-Locana (yakni Dhyani Budha yang tertinggi dalam sistim agama Budha) di Sagala. Arca Kertanegara sebagai Siwa-Budha juga ditemukan di kota Surabaya yang oleh masyarakat disebut Arca Joko Dolog (pemuda gendut).

 

 

 
This temple is located on the foot of Welirang Hill, Candi Wates village, Prigen Subdistrict, Pasuruan Regency, around 31 km from the city of Pasuruan. The temple is relatively still intact after frequent restorations. The second restoration of Jawi Temple was performed between 1938 and 1941 out of its ruined condition. The work, however, was discontinued because there are many missing stones, and was completed further between 1975 and 1980.

Verse 56 of Negarakertagama mentions that Jawi Temple was built by the last king of Singasari Kingdom, Kertanegara, as a worship shrine for Shiva-Buddhist followers. King Kartanegara was a Shiva-Buddhist follower. While being a worship shrine, Jawi Temple is also a place where Kertanegara ashes are kept. This is rather strange because Jawi Temple is located quite distant away from the center of Singasari Kingdom. It is probably because of the fact that the people in the area were so loyal to their king and many of them were Shiva-Buddhist followers. The assumption is founded on a reality that as Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, fled after Kertanegara was dethroned by King Jayakatwang from Gelang-gelang (Kediri); he had once hidden in this area before taking refuge to Madura.

Jawi Temple occupies a large area of approximately 40 x 60 m2. The temple is encircled by a ditch, which today has lotus flowers. The temple stands around 24.5 meters high, 14.2 m long and 9.5 m wide. The temple is slim and high like Prambanan Temple in Central Java, while the pointed, pyramidal roof is a combination between stupa and cube.

Facing the East, Jawi Temple has Pananggungan Mountain on its background, reinforcing the assumption of some experts that this temple is not a shrine or pradaksina, because worship temple usually heads towards mountains where the gods dwell. Some other experts retain their beliefs that Jawi Temple is a place of worship. Entrance position that does not face the mountain is considered to be resulting from Buddhist influence.

One of this temple’s unique characteristics is the use of two types of stone as its construction materials. From the base to veranda, the temple uses stones of dark colors; the body uses white stones, while the roof combines dark and white stones. This temple was probably built in two period of construction. Negarakertagama mentions that in the Javanese year of 1253 (chronogram: Fire Shooting Day) Jawi Temple was struck by lighting. In the incident, the statue of Maha Aksobaya disappeared. The disappearance of the statue had made King Hayam Wuruk sad when the king visited the temple. A year after the incident, Jawi Temple was rebuilt. It is in this period that the white stones were presumably applied. The use of white stones also stimulates questions, because there are only dark-colored stones in Welirang Mountain. The stones were probably taken from the north coasts of Java or Madura.

The temple base sits on a shelf 2 m high engraved in relives that depict a story of a meditating woman. The relatively narrow stairs are positioned right in front of the entrance to graba grha (room in temple body). Detailed engravings decorate the left and right handrails of the stairs into veranda, while the handrails of the stairs from the veranda into temple floor are decorated with a couple of long-eared animal figures.

The temple body is encircled by wide enough verandas. It appears that there used to be a statue inside the temple. The door frame is plain without engravings, but reliefs of kalamakara with a pair of fangs, lower jaw and decoration on its hair are engraved above the door to fill the space between door top and roof base. There is a niche on each of the left and right hand sides of the door to place a statue. Sills above each of the niche are decorated with engravings of fanged and horned creature heads.

The inner room of temple body is currently in empty. Negarakertagama mentions that inside the temple’s niche there was a statue of Shiva with Aksobaya on his crown. The book also mentions that there are a number of god statues in the Shiva system of belief, such as Nandiswara, Durga, Ganesha, Nandi, and Brahma statues. None of the statues remain in their place. Reportedly the Durga statue is now kept in Empu Tantular Museum, Surabaya.

The outer walls of the temple body are decorated in reliefs, which to this day none can interpret. It is probably due to the excessively thin engravings, or because there is a lacking in supporting information such as sculptured stone or scripts. Even Negarakertagama, which tells this temple in detail, does not mention anything about the reliefs. According to gatekeeper of the temple, the reliefs must be read using prasawiya technique (counter-clockwise reading), similar to that used in reading Kidal Temple reliefs. Still according to the gatekeeper, reliefs engraved on the west side of the north wall describe the map of temple compound and its neighboring areas.

A narrow stream separates the temple’s backyard, which is wide and orderly arranged, from settlement area. On the south corner of the yard, there is a ruined construction of red bricks, which probably was a gateway or gapura. However, there is not record available concerning its original shape and function.

 

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Joko Dolog Statue

Joko Dolog can be found on Taman Aspari Street. This statue is a Buddhist statue. It is said to have been made in the year 1289 in honor of the funeral of King Kertanagara, who was the last king of Singosari. It is believed to have been carried to Surabaya about 300 years ago. The statue can be found directly in front of the mansion of the governor of East Java, and the aroma of incense remains in the air as it is still a popular pilgrimage site.

A stone image of the Buddha Akshobya, curiously matching the description of the 'missing statue' at Candi Jawi, can be found today in a small secluded park in Surabaya. Known locally as Joko Dolog, the statue displays a lengthy Sanskrit inscription, carved neatly around its base. When it was translated for the first time early this century, the inscription was found to reveal important historical information dating from the period immediately prior to the founding of Majapahit. Translated in the year 1289 by a Buddhist scribe named Nada, the contents are roughly as follows

It is said that many years ago, the sage Mpu Bharada divided the land of Java into the kingdoms of Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), with the purpose of settling a dispute between two brothers over succession. The division was created magically, by means of holy water sprinkled out of a jar from the sky. However, during the reign of Sri Wishnuwardhana the country was reunited to the joy and benefit of all. The ruler, of whom the statue is said to be a portrait, was Wishnuwardhana's son, Kertanagara, who commissioned the image as a symbol of this unification.

The information contained in the Joko Dolog inscription is especially interesting because it appears to establish the authenticity of certain historical figures and events, previously known only from ancient Javanese literature. The story of the division of Java by the sage Mpu Bharada is of course well known, and refers to the reign of King Airlangga in the 11th century. On the other hand, by giving Wishnuwardhana the credit for having reunited the country, the inscription has cast some doubt upon the reliability of traditional literary sources. This is true in regards to the story of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes, which has been dismissed by some as complete fabrication.

Yet, since the 1975 discovery of a number of inscribed copper sheets originating from the region of Kediri, new light has been shed on the early years of the Singosari period. Known as the inscription of Mula Malurung, issued by King Kertanagara in 1255, it mentions the names of Wishnuwardhana, Tohjaya, as well as a number of other kings who have previously been unknown to historians. Finally, and most interestingly, the Mula Malurung inscription appears to suggest the existence of Ken Angrok, thus at least confirming a historical basis for a story which was regarded almost entirely as a myth.

 
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