MERBABU.COM Pendakian Gunung Merapi Merbabu Jawa Tengah
Website in English Website in Nederlands Website Bahasa Indonesia Nature Lovers and Climbers List Photo gallery the Albums of Nature blog merbabu Mailling List Yahoo groups Merbabu Community groups in Facebook Guestbook of Nature Lovers
MENU KIRI

Candi Cangkuang berada sekitar 10 km di utara Garut, di dekat Leles. Candi ini dibangun pada abad ke 8 dan merupakan salah satu dari sedikit candi pening-galan Hindu yang terdapat di Jawa Barat.

Candi yang terletak ditengah danau Situ Cangkuang yang me miliki suasana damai dengan pa norama yang cukup menarik. Obyek wisata Candi Cangkuang ini ramai dikunjungi orang pada hari libur.

Pengunjung yang akan menuju ke Candi Cangkuang harus meng gunakan rakit sebagai alat trans portasi. Untuk mencapai Candi Cangkuang dengan kendaraan umum wisatawan dapat menum pang angkot nomer 10 dari garut yang menuju ke leles melewati jalan raya utama, kemudian ganti angkot atau naik delman ke Candi sejauh 3 km.

Kebenaran Candi Cangkuang ini diketahui pada tahun 1966 oleh suatu tim sejarah yang di pimpin oleh Prof Harsoyo yang tengah melakukan penelitian didaerah ini. Penelitian itu didasarkan oleh tulisan Vorderman dalam Buku Notulen Bataviaasch Genootschap terbitan tahun 1893 yang menyebutkan bahwa di Desa Cangkuang terdapat makam kuno seorang penyebar agama islam Arif Muhammad dan sebuah arca yang sudah rusak, namun Venderman sama sekali tidak menyebut adanya batu-batu bekas bangunan candi.

The culture of the people in Sunda kingdom was a mixture of Sunda Wiwitan; a native shamanism belief, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Several intact prehistoric megalithic sites such as Cipari site in Kuningan and Pangguyangan menhir and stepped pyramid in Cisolok, Sukabumi, suggests that native shamanic animism and dynamism beliefs still alive and well next to Hinduism and Buddhism influences. The native belief of Sunda Wiwitan still persist to become the way of life for Baduy or Kanekes people that resist islamization and foreign influences. Hindu influence was absorbed since the dawn of Tarumanagara. The Cangkuang Hindu temple in Leles, Garut, dated from the 8th century was dedicated for Shiva and built during the Galuh kingdom. Buddhist influence probably made their way to West Java through the Srivijaya conquest, the empire dominated West Java until 11th century. The brick stupas in Batujaya is the evidence of Buddhist influence in West Java, while nearby Cibuaya sites show Hinduim influence.

The culture of Sunda kingdom was heavily centered on agricultural activity, especially rice cultivation. Naturally Nyi Sri Pohaci or Sanghyang Asri, the goddess of rice, is considered and revered as the main deity or the highest goddess within Sundanese pantheon. The priest was concerning about the religious ceremonies and the king with his subjects participated in annual ceremonies and festivals such as the blessing of the rice seeds ceremonies and harvest festival. The annual Seren Taun rice harvest festival still can be found today in traditional Sundanese communities.

According to Bujangga Manik manuscript, the courtly culture of Sunda kraton and its noble's etiquette in Pakuan Pajajaran was quite sophisticated and refined. However no traces and remains of palace or buildings survived in the former capital, probably because most were constructed from organic wooden materials and had decayed eversince.

Dari kota Garut menumpang angkot nomer 10 yang menuju ke Leles melewati jalan raya, kemudian ganti angkot atau naik delman ke Candi sejauh 3 km.

Di samping Candi Cangkuang terdapat makam Embah Dalem Arif Muhammad, seorang penyebar agama islam di daerah ini.

Konon menurut cerita masyarakat setempat, Embah Dalem Arif Muhammad dan teman-temannyalah yang membendung daerah ini sehingga terbentuklah sebuah danau yang dinamakan Situ Cangkuang.

Embah Dalem Arif Muhammad berasal dari kerajaan Mataram dari Jawa Timur dia datang bersama rombongannya untuk menyerang VOC di Batavia dan menyebarkan agama islam, salah satunya adalah desa Cangkuang yang saat itu penduduknya telah menganut agama Hindu.

Di desa tersebut terdapat sebuah candi Hindu yang telah dipugar yang dinamakan candi Cangkuang,.

Meskipun penduduk di desa tersebut telah memeluk agama islam namun mereka masih menjalankan sebagian ajaran agama Hindu.

The Sunda Kingdom was a Hindu kingdom located on the western part of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering areas of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java. According to primary historical records, the Bujangga Manik manuscript the eastern border of the Sunda Kingdom is Pamali River (Ci Pamali, present day Brebes River) and Serayu River (Ci Sarayu) in Central Java. Most of the accounts of Sunda Kingdom came from the primary historical records dated from the 16th century.

There is continuous knowledge about the kingdom among Sundanese people that has been kept alive through Sundanese Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses mostly tells the story of the golden era of Sunda Pajajaran and the legend of King Siliwangi, the popular king of Sunda.

Most of the account and records of Sunda kingdom came from ancient manuscripts dated from later period, such as Wangsakerta, Carita Parahyangan, Kidung Sunda, Bujangga Manik, and Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara. Several stone inscriptions also mentioned the kingdom, such as Jayabupati, Kawali, and Batutulis.

According to Wangsakerta manuscript, king Tarusbawa from Sunda Sambawa, a vasal kingdom of Tarumanagara, had succeeded his father in-law as the 13th king of Tarumanagara. At the same time, Tarumanagara's prestige and power had been declining, likely due to the series of invasions from Srivijaya. Wishing to restore the glory of King Purnawarman that reigned from Purasaba (capital city) of Sundapura, in 670 AD he changed the name of Tarumanagara to Sunda kingdom. This event confirmed by a Chinese source that mentioned the last time Tarumanaga sent their envoy was in 669 AD. Tarusbawa did send his emissary to the Chinese Emperor at the time to informed his ascension to the throne in 669 AD. He was crowned on the date 9 on full moon on Jesta month in 591 Saka, or corresponds to 18 May 669 AD. [edit] Separation of Galuh and Sunda Kingdom Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh

According to the Wangsakerta manuscript, the establishment of the Sunda Kingdom was used as an excuse by Wretikandayun, the lord of Galuh, another former vasal kingdom of Tarumanagara to break eastern Taruma apart from Tarusbawa's Sunda. Since the crown prince of Galuh is the son in-law of Queen Sima of Kalingga, a Hindu kingdom in central Java, Wretikandayun with the support from Kalingga demands that the remnant of what was known as Tarumanagara's territory should be divided into two kingdoms. Finding himself in an unfortunate position and unwilling to risk a civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun's demand. In 670 AD Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: the Sunda Kingdom in the west, and the Galuh Kingdom the east, separated by the Tarum (Citarum) River. [edit] Sanna and Purbasora

Tarusbawa is the good friend of Bratasena or Sena (709 - 716), the third king of Galuh. He also known as Sanna, as mentioned in Canggal inscription (732 AD), uncle of Sanjaya. This friendship encourage Tarusbawa to took Sanjaya as his son in-law. Bratasenawa (Sanna or Sena) is surpassed from Galuh throne by Purbasora in 716. Purbasora is the grandson of Wretikandayun from his eldest son, Batara Danghyang Guru Sempakwaja, the founder of Galunggung kingdom. On the other hand Sena is also grandson of Wretikandayun from his youngest son, Mandiminyak, the second king of Galuh (702-709 AD).

Actually Purbasora and Sena are brothers because of the affair between Mandiminyak and Sempakwaja's wife. Sempakwaja can not succeeded his father because he is toothless, a shameful physical handicap considered unsuitable to be king at that time. That's why his younger brother has inherited the Galuh throne from Wretikandayun. However, the son of Sempakwaja still felt deserved to the throne of Galuh. Moreover King Sena has doubtful scandalous origin that fueled Purbasora rebellion and determination to took Galuh throne from Sena.

With the aid of his father in-law, King Indraprahasta, from a kingdom near present day Cirebon, Purbasora launch his coup on Galuh throne. Defeated Sena flee to Kalingga, the kingdom of his wife's grandmother, Queen Shima. [edit] Reunification of Sunda and Galuh

Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom coexisted under a strange and complex relationship. At times the two kingdoms united as the Sunda kingdom under the same king, at others they separated with different kings. They would finally unify as the Sunda kingdom under the same king.

Since the crown prince of Sunda died before King Tarusbawa, Princess Tejakencana (the daughter of crown prince) was hailed as heiress of Sunda. She married to Rakeyan Jamri, who was a son of Bratasenawa (the third king of Galuh kingdom and a son of Wretikandayun) and princess Sanaha (from Kalingga). In 723 Jamri surpassed Tarusbawa to be the second king of Sunda. As the lord of Sunda he was known as Prabu Harisdarma and when he acquired the throne of Galuh he was known as Sanjaya.

Although the kingdom of Sunda left little archaeological remains, the memory about the kingdom was kept alive within the culture of Sundanese people through Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses. Sunda kingdom is revered as the prosperous and glorious golden age. The historical identity and the source of pride for Sundanese people, the same as Majapahit for Javanese people. The pantun that mentioned Sunda Kingdom (popularly known as Pakuan or Pajajaran).

Banner Kanan
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Banner Bawah

HOME  -  ARTIKEL  JAWA BARAT  -  JAWA TENGAH  -  JAWA TIMUR  -  LUAR JAWA -  DAFTAR PUSTAKA  EMAIL MERBABUCOM  -  BUKU TAMU